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Written evidence submitted by Dr Peter Apps (AAB0009)

 

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PREDICTABLE IMPACTS OF BANS ON HUNTING TROPHY IMPORTS TO THE UK ON POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SOUTHERN AFRICAN MAMMALS.

Dr Peter Apps

MY BACKGROUND AND QUALIFICATIONS

I have a PhD in Zoology, and 23 years experience in wildlife biology and conservation. I currently work on mitigation of human-predator conflict.  I am an author of 69 peer-reviewed articles and 6 books on southern African wildlife. n My ResearchGate profile has the details; https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Peter-Apps

My reason for submitting evidence is that in my professional judgement the proposed ban on trophy imports will lead to unintended and undesirable declines in wildlife populations, that cannot properly be the intent of the legislation.

SUMMARY

If trophy imports to the UK are banned the economic viability of areas managed for consumptive wildlife will be compromised. Those areas will revert to commercial  livestock or crops, or their subsistence equivalents. The consequent loss of wildlife habitat will lead to declines in the populations of 112 of the 117 species of mammal (excluding bats, small rodents and insectivores) in southern Africa, and local or widespread extirpations of 54 of them.

EVIDENCE

In nearly all discussion about trophy hunting, the focus falls exclusively on the species that are hunted, and most narrowly on those referred to as “iconic”, meaning large, well-known animals whose images are frequently used in internet fund-raising schemes. The hundreds of other species that inhabit wildlife habitats managed for hunting are generally ignored (either deliberately or through a lack of information).

I have compiled a list of 117 species of mammals from the Southern African Subregion (the part of the African continent south of the Kavango and Zambezi rivers), excluding approximately 250 species of bats, nocturnal small rodents, shrews and golden moles, with the impacts on their numbers and distributions that can be confidently predicted to be a consequence of  bans on hunting trophy imports (see attached Excel Spreadsheet). Of the 115 species for which there is adequate data for a prediction, only three are not predicted to suffer declines in numbers, and all three of those have numbers and distributions that are already so small that they occur only in non-consumptive protected areas. Fifty four species will suffer local extirpations, and three of them; African wild dog, white rhino and black rhino will have their distributions restricted to formal protected areas.

The predictions are drawn from the extensive compilations of historical distributions by Rautenbach, Smithers, Skead, and Boshoff and Kerley, compared to current and historical distributions from the IUCN red lists and the red list for South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho, in addition to national scale habitat inventories and compilations of species distributions at national levels. Coverage is extremely uneven – Mozambique has adequate inventories of its mammals covering only 5% of its area. Consequently, it was necessary to extrapolate and interpolate from one country to another. Given the ubiquity of the impacts of habitat loss on species numbers and distribution, there is no reason to suppose that there will be significant differences in impact between countries.

The predictable population reductions and extirpations are driven by habitat loss as wildlife habitat that is currently used for hunting is converted back to commercial or subsistence agriculture or even more destructive land uses such as industry, mining and urban sprawl. Commercial hunting operations depend for financial sustainability on the high prices of trophy hunts. If trophy hunts decrease in number, or have to be offered at lower prices due to decreased demand, then financial constraints will lead to hunting ranches reverting to commercial livestock or crops. Wildlife habitat managed for hunting on communal land will revert to subsistence cropping and pastoralism. Where wildlife survives on agricultural land the loss of tangible value through hunting will lead to decreased tolerance for the damage wildlife inflicts, and lethal control, especially of large predators; lions, leopards, cheetahs, spotted hyaenas and African wild dogs, will increase as a consequence.

Land tenure systems differ between countries, but they have in common the need for land uses to generate tangible material benefits for owners, leaseholders, or residents. If wildlife-based land uses do not generate competitive levels of income they get replaced by land uses that do; at large scale these are subsistence and commercial cropping and livestock, and at local scale industry, mining and urban sprawl. None of these land uses support the numbers or diversity of wild species that are found in areas with wildlife-based land uses.

None of the predictions are at all controversial; they are a replay of the impacts that occurred when commercial agriculture expanded in South Africa and the then Rhodesia, and an acceleration of the impacts that are currently occurring throughout the subregion as growing human and livestock populations lead to increasing pressures to convert land to subsistence cropping and pastoralism. Poaching adds an additional pressure; the high costs of anti-poaching, especially for elephant ivory and rhino horn, can be recouped from non-consumptive wildlife viewing only at the very top of the market, whose geographic coverage is far too small to be significant at sub-regional level.

This compilation is only the tip of the iceberg of biodiversity loss that is a predictable consequence of a trophy import ban. It excludes the approximately 200 species of bats, small rodents, shrews and golden moles that also inhabit the subregion. All of these are likely to be adversely impacted.

 


SOURCES AND REFERENCES

Boshoff, A. F., & Kerley, G. I. H. (2013). Historical incidence of the larger mammals in the Free State Province (South Africa) and Lesotho. Centre for African Conservation Ecology; Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.

Boshoff, A. F., & Kerley, G. I. H. (2015). Lost herds of the Highveld: evidence from the written, historical record. African Journal of Wildlife Research, 45(3), 287-300.

Boshoff, A., Landman, M., & Kerley, G. (2016). Filling the gaps on the maps: historical distribution patterns of some larger mammals in part of southern Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 71(1), 23-87.

Child, M. F., & Roxburgh, L. (2016). The red list of mammals of South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho 2016. https://www.nationalredlist.org/the-red-list-of-mammals-of-south-africa-swaziland-and-lesotho-2016/

Child, G., & Savory, C. R. (1964). The distribution of large mammal species in Southern Rhodesia. Arnoldia Rhodesia, 1(14), 1-15.

Faurby, S., & Svenning, J. C. (2015). Historic and prehistoric human‐driven extinctions have reshaped global mammal diversity patterns. Diversity and Distributions, 21(10), 1155-1166.

Griffin, M. (1998). The species diversity, distribution and conservation of Namibian mammals. Biodiversity & Conservation, 7(4), 483-494.

Rautenbach, I. L. (1978). Ecological distribution of the mammals of the Transvaal (Vertebrata: Mammalia). Annals of the Transvaal Museum, 31(10), 131-156.

Rautenbach, I. L. (1982). The mammals of the Transvaal (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria).

Skead, C.J. (2011). Historical incidence of the larger land mammals in the broader Western and Northern Cape provinces.  A Boshoff, G Kerley and P Lloyd (eds).  Port Elizabeth: Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.

Skead, C. J., Boshoff, A., Kerley, G. I. H., & Lloyd, P. (2007). Historical incidence of the larger land mammals in the broader Eastern Cape (Vol. 13, p. 570). Port Elizabeth: Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.

Skinner, J. D., & Chimimba, C. T. (2005). The mammals of the southern African sub-region. Cambridge University Press.

Skinner, J. D., & Smithers, R. H. N. The mammals of the southern African subregion. 1990. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 234-244.

Smithers, R. H. (1971). The mammals of Botswana. Museum memoir 4. Trustees Nat. Mus. Rhodesia. Salisbury.

Smithers, R. H. N. (1983). The mammals of the Southern African subregion University of Pretoria. Pretoria, South Africa.

Winterbach, H. E., Winterbach, C. W., & Somers, M. J. (2014). Landscape suitability in Botswana for the conservation of its six large African carnivores. PloS one, 9(6).

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PREDICTABLE IMPACTS OF BANS ON HUNTING TROPHY IMPORTS TO THE UK ON POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SOUTHERN AFRICAN MAMMALS.

Dr Peter Apps

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SPECIES COMMON NAME

SPECIES SCIENTIFIC NAME

PREDICTABLE OUTCOME OF HUNTING TROPHY IMPORT BANS

NOTES

Aardvark

Orycteropus afer

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Treated as a pest in farmland; its burrows undermine roads and earth dams, and damage field machinery. Popular as food with local people and very vulnerable to snaring.

Aardwolf

Proteles cristatus

Localised declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Benefits from increased termite numbers in badly managed rangelands, but is killed for ritual materials and is a bycatch of indiscriminate trapping, domestic dogs and poisoning

African buffalo

Syncerus caffer

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Mostly incompatible with human settlement. They will be eradicated from contact zones with cattle due to disease concerns. Popular targets for poachers.

African civet

Civettictis civetta

Widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Populations decline where vegetation is overexploited by livestock. Persecuted for perceived raids on poultry, bycatch of meat snaring, indiscriminate predator control with traps and poisons. Harvested for skins.

African clawless otter

Aonyx capensis

Widespread declines

Degradation of riparian and wetland habitat reduces otter numbers. Over-fishing depletes their prey base. Persecuted for perceived raids on poultry, bycatch of meat snaring, indiscriminate predator control with traps and poisons.

African elephant

Loxodonta african

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Incompatible with crop growing and settlements. Unwelcome in livestock areas because they break fences and damage water points. Vulnerable to poaching, especially where local residents get no benefit from their presence.

African striped weasel

Poecilgale albinucha

Possible declines and local extirpations, possible local increases

Numbers may increase where overgrazing favours increase in gerbil populations, but bush encroachment and conversion of grasslands degrades habitat. Skins are in demand for ritual attire.

African wild dog

Lycaon pictus

Rapid declines leading to extirpation everywhere outside Parks and Reserves

No protected area is big enough to avoid edge effects and population sinks in adjacent livestock areas. Incompatible with crop farming where there is no prey, and with livestock unless natural prey remains.

African wildcat

Felis silvestris caffra

Widespread declines and genetic mixing with domestic cats

Can survive in farmland, but is persecuted for attacks on small stock and poultry and vulnerable to indiscriminate trapping, snaring and poisoning.

Banded mongoose

Mungos mungo

Widespread declines, local extirpation

Does best where diverse large herbivores produce abundant dung where it forages for insects. Vulnerable to indiscriminate trapping and poisoning

Bat-eared fox

Otocyon megalotis

Widespread declines, local extirpation, possible local increases

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Requires abundant termites for food. Vulnerable to indiscriminate poisoning and trapping, and to domestic dogs and their diseases. Pelts are in demand.

Black rhino

Diceros bicornis

Sharp declines ending in extirpation outside fortress sanctuaries

Extremely vulnerable to organised poaching, and anti-poaching measures are beyond the means of landowners who can realise no value from their animals.

Black wildebeest

Connochaetes gnou

Localised declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Consumptive game ranches running black wildebeest will convert back to livestock

Black-backed jackal

Canis mesomelas

Widespread declines and extirpations

As consumptive private reserves convert back to livestock jackal control will revert back to the indiscriminate elimination of the pre-1990s.

Black-footed cat

Felis nigripes

Widespread declines

Can survive on well-managed livestock land but overgrazing deprives them of cover and prey. Vulnerable to indiscriminate trapping and poisoning.

Blesbok

Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Blesbok are mainly on consumptive game farms that will revert to livestock without the cash income from trophy hunting

Blue duiker

Philantomba monticola

Declines, localised extirpations

Forest habitat specialists, very vulnerable to the snaring and hunting with dogs that follows incursions into areas previously managed for wildlife

Blue wildebeest

Connochaetes taurinus

Widespread declines, local extirpations that may become large scale

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Blue wildebeest  on consumptive game farms that will revert to livestock without the cash income from trophy hunting will disappear. Encroachment of livestock and fences into extensive consumptive wildlife areas will block migrations and gene flow.

Bontebok

Damaliscus pyargus pygargus

Widespread declines, local extirpations

Bontebok on consumptive game farms that will revert to livestock without the cash income from trophy hunting will disappear.

Brown hyaena

Hyaena brunnea

Widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Can survive in extensive livestock areas but not with intensive livestock. Targeted for livestock killings and vulnerable to indiscriminate trapping and poisoning. Their front legs are used for traditional charms.

Bushbuck

Tragelaphus scriptus

Widespread declines, local extirpations

Needs woodland and forest that are vulnerable to conversion and mismanagement under agriculture or traditional use. Very vulnerable to snaring and poaching with dogs.

Bushpig

Potamochoerus larvatus

Widespread declines, local extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Incompatible with crop farming. Vulnerable to snaring.

Bushveld elephant shrew

Elephantulus intufi

Possible widespread decline

Habitat degradation under livestock and especially poorly managed pastoralism is inevitable.

Bushy-tailed mongoose

Bdeogale crassicauda

Unknown

This species has hardly been studied at all

Cape fox

Vulpes chama

Widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Widely persecuted on livestock farms for attacks on lambs and kids. Vulnerable to dogs, indiscriminate trapping and poisoning. Some demand for pelts.

Cape grey mongoose

Galerella pulverulenta

Widespread declines

Badly managed livestock cause general habitat degradation

Cape grysbok

Raphicerus melanotis

Localised declines

Not much of it habitat is currently managed for hunting

Cape hare

Lepus capensis

Widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat. Vulnerable to poaching with dogs

Cape mountain zebra

Equus zebra zebra

Local declines and extirpations

If consumptive game ranches with zebras revert to livestock the zebras will be shot out or moved.

Cape rock elephant-shrew

Elephantulus edwardii

Widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Badly managed livestock cause general habitat degradation

Caracal

Caracal caracal

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. As consumptive private reserves convert back to livestock caracal control will revert back to the indiscrete elimination of the pre-1990s.

Central African large spotted genet

Genetta maculata

Widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Overgrazing by over-stocked free-ranging cattle degrades habitat. Persecuted for raiding poultry, vulnerable to indiscriminate trapping and poisoning.

Chacma baboon

Papio hamadryas ursinus

Widespread declines and local extirpations

Incompatible with crops, vegetables and fruit orchards. A pest of small livestock. Unwelcome in residential areas for raids on houses and garden and attacks on people.

Cheetah

Acinonyx jubatus

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Cheetahs on livestock farms and consumptive game ranches and conservancies will lose their tangible value and be eliminated as problem animals. Edge effects along unfenced protected area boundaries will compromise core populations.

Damara dik-dik

Madoqua damarensis

Localised declines and extirpations

The distribution is very limited. Overgrazing by badly managed livestock degrades habitat, they are very vulnerable to snaring and poaching with dogs.

Damara ground squirrel

Xerus princeps

Declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat.

Dwarf mongoose

Helogale parvula

Widespread declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat.

Eastern rock elephant-shrew

Elephantulus myurus

Declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat.

Egyptian mongoose

Herpestes ichneumon

Declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat. Vulnerable to  dogs, persecuted for raiding poultry and perceived attacks on small livestock, vulnerable to indiscriminate trapping and poisoning.

Eland

Taurotragus oryx

Large widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Eland on consumptive game ranches and in conservancies will be replaced by livestock, eland on abandoned hunting concession will be poached.

Four-toed elephant-shrew

Ptrodromus tetradactylus

Declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat.

Gemsbok

Oryx gazella

Large widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Gemsbok  on consumptive game ranches and conservancies will be replaced by livestock, gemsbok in abandoned hunting concession will be poached.

Giraffe

Giraffe camelopardalis

Large widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Giraffe on consumptive game ranches and conservancies will be replaced by livestock, giraffe in abandoned hunting concession will be poached.

Grant's lesser bushbaby

Galagoides granti

Widespread declines

Depends on woodland, which is vulnerable to mismanaged livestock and over-harvesting of timber

Grey duiker

Silvicapra grimmia

Large widespread declines, local extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Vulnerable to poaching with dogs and snaring.

Grey rhebok

Pelea capreolus

Widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Vulnerable to poaching with dogs.

Ground pangolin

Mais temminckii

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Very vulnerable to poaching wherever there is public access.

Hartmann's mountain zebra

Equus zebra hartmannae

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Zebras on consumptive game ranches will be replaced by livestock and zebras on conservancies and abandoned hunting concession will be poached for skins and meat.

Hewitt's red rock rabbit

Pronolagus saundersiae

Declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat. Vulnerable to poaching with dogs.

Hippo

Hippopotamus amphibius

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Riparian development deprives them of habitat. Water abstraction for crops deprives them of daytime refuges. Popular targets of meat and ivory poachers.

Honey badger

Mellivora capensis

Widespread declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat. Vulnerable to indiscriminate trapping, snaring and poisoning.

Impala

Aepyceros melampus

Widespread large declines and local extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Impala on consumptive game ranches, conservancies and hunting concessions will be replaced by livestock, removed, or poached.

Jameson's red rock rabbit

Pronolagus randensis

Declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat. Vulnerable to poaching with dogs.

Kaokaland slender mongoose

Galerella flavescens

Declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat.

Karoo-rock elephant shrew

Elephantulus pilicaudus

Declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat.

Klipspringer

Oreotragus oreotragus

Declines and local extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat. Vulnerable to poaching with firearms.

Kudu

Tragelaphus strepsiceros

Large widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Kudu on consumptive game ranches and in conservancies will be replaced by livestock, kudu on abandoned hunting concessions will be poached.

Leopard

Panthera pardus

Widespread declines and extirpations everywhere outside Parks and Reserves. Declines in Parks and Reserves

The rest of the subregion will follow South Africa where leopards are almost restricted to formally protected areas due to poaching and conflict killings. Leopards on game ranches in SA will be killed as problem animals when the ranches revert to livestock.

Lesser Bushbaby

Galago moholi

Widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Depends on woodland, which is vulnerable to mismanaged livestock and over-harvesting of timber

Lichtenstein's hartebeest

Alcelaphus lichtensteinii

Local declines and extirpations

The range in the subregion is extremely restricted. The population in the Kruger NP will be in affected. The few in Zimbabwe are vulnerable to poaching.

Lion

Panthera leo

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Incompatible with livestock and settlement. Lions on consumptive game ranches in South Africa, conservancies in Namibia and vacated hunting concessions in Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique will be killed as problem animals and poached for skins, teeth, claws and bones. Core populations will suffer edge effects and lose connectivity.

Meerkat

Suricata suricatta

Widespread declines

Can survive in livestock areas but overstocking degrades habitat.

Meller's mongoose

Rhynchogale melleri

Likely declines

Almost nothing is known about this species

Mountain reedbuck

Redunca fulvorufula

Widespread declines.

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Mountain reedbuck on consumptive ranches and concessions will be replaced by livestock. Vulnerable to poaching with dogs and a popular target for coursing competitions.

Natal red rock rabbit

Pronolagus crassicaudatus

Declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat. Vulnerable to poaching with dogs.

Nyala

Tragelaphus ngasii

Widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Nyala on consumptive game ranches will be replaced by livestock or poached for meat using firearms and dogs. They are forest/woodland animals; habitats that are susceptible to over-harvesting of timber and poorly managed livestock.

Oribi

Ourebia ouribi

Widespread declines and extirpations

Oribi on consumptive game ranches  will be displaced by livestock and poached out with dogs. A popular target for coursing competitions.

Palm civet

Nandinia binotata

Declines

Marginal in the subregion, dependent on forest that will be degraded and fragmented by incursions of crops and livestock.

Plains zebra

Equus quagga

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Zebra  on consumptive game farms that will revert to livestock without the cash income from trophy hunting will disappear. Encroachment of livestock and fences into extensive consumptive wildlife areas will block migrations and gene flow. Popular targets for poachers in search of meat and skins.

Puku

Kobus vardonii

No effect in the subregion

The extreme northern edge of the subregion is the southern limit of puku distribution and a few dozen live there in a National Park

Red bush squirrel

Paraxerus palliatus

Declines, local extirpations

A forest specialist susceptible to habitat loss through timber extraction, clearance for crops, and burning.

Red duiker

Cephalophus natalensis

Declines, localised extirpations

Forest habitat specialists, very vulnerable to the snaring and hunting with dogs that follows incursions into areas previously managed for wildlife

Red hartebeest

Alcelaphus buselaphus

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Red hartebeest on consumptive game farms that will revert to livestock without the cash income from trophy hunting will disappear. Encroachment of livestock and fences into extensive consumptive wildlife areas will block migrations and gene flow.

Red lechwe

Kobus leche

Papid localised declines leading to extirpations

Translocated lechwe in South Africa will be replaced by livestock. Core populations in the Okavango - Chobe - Linyanti are in National Parks and Reserves

Riverine rabbit

Bunolagus monticularis

No likely effect

The very small numbers are currently not in consumptive wildlife areas

Roan

Hippotragus equinus

Widespread declines and localised extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Roan on consumptive game farms that will revert to livestock without the cash income from trophy hunting will disappear. Encroachment of livestock into extensive consumptive wildlife areas will degrade tall grass habitat. Roan are popular targets for meat poachers..

Rock dassie

Procavia capensis

Declines

Will be targeted for meat and pelts by people encroaching into previous consumptive wildlife areas

Round-eared elephant shrew

Macroscelides proboscideus

Declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat.

Sable

Hippotragus niger

Widespread declines and local extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Sable on consumptive game farms that will revert to livestock without the cash income from trophy hunting will disappear. Encroachment of livestock into extensive consumptive wildlife areas will degrade tall grass habitat.

Samango monkey

Cercopithecus albogularis

Declines

Dependent on dense woodland and forest which are vulnerable to over-harvesting, clearing for agriculture, fire and fragmentation. They will be persecuted as pests of crops and fruit. Skins are in demand for traditional ceremonial attire.

Scrub hare

Lepus saxatilis

Widespread declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat. Vulnerable to poaching with dogs

Selous' mongoose

Paracynictis selousi

Unknown.

Although common this species has not been studied.

Serval

Leptailurus serval

Widespread declines, local extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Depends on tall grass habitats that are degraded by overgrazing by livestock. Persecuted for perceived attacks on small livestock and poultry. Very vulnerable to dogs. Skins are sought after.

Sharpe's grysbok

Raphcerus sharpei

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Vulnerable to snaring and poaching with dogs

Short-snouted elephant-shrew

Elephantulus brachyrhynchus

Declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat.

Side-striped jackal

Canis adustus

Widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Persecuted for perceived attacks on small livestock. Vulnerable to indiscriminate predator control with traps and poison. Some demand for pelts.

Sitatunga

Tragelaphus spekii

No effect in the subregion

Core populations are in National Parks and Reserves

Slender mongoose

Galerella sanguinea

Minor declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Persecuted for raids on poultry. Vulnerable to indiscriminate poisonings

Small grey mongoose

Galeralla pulverulenta

Minor declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Persecuted for raids on poultry. Vulnerable to indiscriminate poisonings

Small-spotted genet

Genetta genetta

Minor declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Persecuted for raids on poultry. Vulnerable to indiscriminate poisonings

Smith's red rock rabbit

Pronolagus rupestris

Declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat. Vulnerable to poaching with dogs.

South African ground-squirrel

Paraxerus cepapi

Widespread declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat and depletes food supply. Not compatible with crops or vegetables

South African large-spotted genet

Genetta tigrina

Minor declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Persecuted for raids on poultry. Vulnerable to indiscriminate poisonings

Southern African hedgehog

Atelerix frontalis

Widespread declines

Spines are in demand by traditional healers

Southern African porcupine

Hystrix africaeaustralis

Widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Persecuted for damage to crops, pumpkins and root vegetables. Poached for meat and quills.

Southern reedbuck

Redunca arundinum

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Reedbuck on consumptive game farms that will revert to livestock without the cash income from trophy hunting will disappear.  Very vulnerable to poaching with dogs.

Spotted hyaena

Crocuta crocuta

Widespread serious declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Not compatible with livestock or settlements. Core populations in National Parks and Reserves will suffer edge effects.

Spotted-necked otter

Lutra maculocollis

Declines

Degradation of riparian and wetland habitat reduces otter numbers. Over-fishing depletes their prey base.

Springbok

Antidorcas marsupialis

Widespread serious declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Springbok on consumptive game farms that will revert to livestock without the cash income from trophy hunting will disappear. Encroachment of livestock into extensive consumptive wildlife areas will degrade habitat. Fences will block migrations and reduce population connectivity.

Springhare

Pedetes capensis

Widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Overgrazing by livestock, especially badly managed pastoralism, degrades habitat and reduces food supply. Incompatible with crops and vegetables. A popular source of bushmeat,

Steenbok

Raphicerus campestris

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Steenbok on consumptive game farms that will revert to livestock without the cash income from trophy hunting will disappear. Encroachment of livestock into extensive consumptive wildlife areas will degrade habitat. Very vulnerable to snares and poaching with dogs.

Striped polecat

Ictonyx striatus

Widespread declines

Overgrazing by badly-manged livestock will degrade habitat. Some demand for pelts to traditional ritual attire

Striped tree squirrel

Funisciurus congicus

Declines and local extirpations

Dependent on woodland  which is vulnerable to over-harvesting, clearing for agriculture, fire and fragmentation.

Sun squirrel

Heliosciurus mutabilis

Large declines and local extirpations

Dependent on forest, which is vulnerable to over-harvesting, clearing for agriculture, fire and fragmentation.

Suni

Neotragus moschatus

Localised declines and extirpations

Dependent on forest, which is vulnerable to over-harvesting, clearing for agriculture, fire and fragmentation. Very vulnerable to snares and dogs, and largely restricted to wildlife areas. And which only a small fraction are non-consumptive.

Thick-tailed bushbaby

Otolemur crassicaudatus

Widespread declines

Dependent on woodland  which is vulnerable to over-harvesting, clearing for agriculture, fire and fragmentation.

Tree dassie

Dendrohyrax arboreus

Declines and local extirpations

Dependent on forest, which is vulnerable to over-harvesting, clearing for agriculture, fire and fragmentation.

Tsessebe

Damaliscus lunatus

Widespread declines and extirpations.

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Tsessebe  on consumptive game ranches that will revert to livestock without the cash income from trophy hunting will disappear. Encroachment of livestock into extensive consumptive wildlife areas will degrade habitat. Very vulnerable to poaching with firearms

Vervet Monkey

Cercopithecus pygerythrus

Widespread declines

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Incompatible with crops, vegetables and fruit orchards.  Unwelcome in residential areas for raids on houses and gardens. Skins are in demand for traditional ritual attire.

Warthog

Phacochoerus africanus

Widespread declines and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Warthogs  on consumptive game ranches and conservancies will be displaced by livestock, warthogs in abandoned hunting concession will be poached. With no value for either meat of trophies they will be eradicated at large scale to reduce transmission of African swine fever to domestic pigs.

Water mongoose

Atilax paludinosus

Widespread declines

Riparian development and agriculture will degrade habitat. Persecuted for perceived raids on poultry, vulnerable to indiscriminate predator control by traps and poison.

Waterbuck

Kobus ellipsiprymnus

Widespread declines  and extirpations

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Dependent on well-watered riparian habitat that is also favoured for crops and livestock. Waterbuck on consumptive game ranches that will revert to livestock without the cash income from trophy hunting will disappear. Encroachment of livestock into extensive consumptive wildlife areas will degrade habitat.

Western rock elephant shrew

Elephantulus rupestris

Declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat.

White rhino

Ceratotherium simum

Sharp declines ending in extirpation outside fortress sanctuaries

Conversion of consumptive wildlife-based land use to agriculture will deprive it of habitat. Extremely vulnerable to organised poaching, and anti-poaching measures are beyond the means of landowners who can realise no value from their animals.

White-tailed mongoose

Ichneumia albicauda

Widespread declines

Persecuted for perceived attacks on small livestock. Vulnerable to indiscriminate predator control with traps and poison.

Yellow mongoose

Cynictis penicillata

Possible widespread declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat. Yellow mongooses are a reservoir host of canine rabies and historically colonies were blasted with dynamite in attempts to limit its spread. Vulnerable to indiscriminate predator control with traps and poison.

Yellow-spot dassie

Heterohyrax brucei

Local declines

Overgrazing by livestock degrades habitat.

 

 

 

 

117 species

 

 

 

Number of declines

 

112

 

Number of extirpations

 

54

 

No effect

 

3

 

Unknown

 

2

 

 

August 2021