SPDF0004

 

Written evidence submitted  by Harlette Capital Ltd

Naomi McGill B.IT, MBA

Space Defence Response

 

 


Contents

How should the UK Government seek to further develop its strategic relationships and interoperability with allies?

Where can the UK most effectively develop and deploy its own sovereign defence capabilities, with particular regard to:

Space Situational Awareness

Navigation

Addition of Future Services into Leo

Space Debris

EME – Earth Moon Earth

PNT (Position, Navigation, Timing) services, in the context of the UK’s exit from the EU’s Galileo and EGNOS programmes

Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

Communications

How vulnerable are our space assets to deliberate attack, both physical and otherwise, and what steps can be taken to improve their resilience (with regard both to defence capabilities and other critical national infrastructure)?

How can defence industrial policy ensure that investment and innovation in the private space sector is harnessed to align with the UK’s defence requirements?

Space Based Power Generation

Space Power & Telecommunications Transmission

Point to Point Defence Delivery

Have recent machinery of government changes ensured a joined-up and coherent approach to defence space policy both across Whitehall and within the MoD?

What further improvements could be made? What should be the priorities of the new Space Command, and how will its structures facilitate integration across all military domains and co-operation with commercial space operations?

How can the Ministry of Defence ensure that it attracts, develops and retains high calibre space specialists in both policy and operational roles

 


How should the UK Government seek to further develop its strategic relationships and interoperability with allies?

 

 

 

Watch your thoughts. They become words. Watch your words. They become deeds. Watch your deeds. They become habits. Watch your habits. They become character. Character is everything. - Margaret Thatcher

 

 

 


Where can the UK most effectively develop and deploy its own sovereign defence capabilities, with particular regard to:

 

Space Situational Awareness

Currently there is a gap in the mapping of LEO and there is nothing that displays layering of UK based spaced assets in relation to international space based assets in LEO

Navigation

 

 

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Chart, sunburst chart

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Addition of Future Services into Leo

Telesat – Canada

Amazon – USA

 

Chart, radar chart

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Space Debris

 

EME – Earth Moon Earth

 

 

EME -Earth moon earth

EM2E- Earth mars earth

MEM -Moon Earth Moon

M2EM2 -Mars earth Mars

M2ME -mars moon earth

EMM2 -earth moon mars 

 

 

PNT (Position, Navigation, Timing) services, in the context of the UK’s exit from the EU’s Galileo and EGNOS programmes

 

This question is not able to be responded to as is outside the operational capabilities. As a British commercial corporation, Harlette Capital Ltd, are unable to answer a question in relation to the operational approach regarding EU’s Galileo or EGNOS programmes.

 

Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

 

Most of the immediate issues faced with UK[iii], is in relation to the closest Alligator at the Boat[iv] Until the Brexit issues are embedded this area of Intelligence sharing is still a moving target. Please see the point 2,3,4 in the last question.


Communications

Using this scenario created from Harlette Capital Ltd

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A picture containing food

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War Rooms - Scenario

1.     A war breaks out in Space 

2.     It is discovered that LEO is littered with space-based weaponry hidden in seemingly innocent nano satellites.

3.     Earth based factions start rioting and then gain access to ground based laser weapon sites.

 

Unknown Unknowns

      1. The warring factions on earth start pointing at the sky taking down all the comms assets and Earth goes into a permanent blackout.
      2. With no way of communicating 

 

Response – Beyond LEO

  1. A hero begins his journey across the world to launch himself into space and save humanity promising to launch real satellites not pretending to be stars in a region that the earth-based laser weapons can’t reach

 

 

 

Resolution

  1. He builds them with a small team and then takes a ride to space with the help of Europeans and Russians to hotwire a space launch facility. 

 

  1. Earth gets rebooted. 

 

In addition to the above

1.     The only things that you have is a quantum key FSO network that you can talk with Canada & Baltics and the Russians in one place only St Petersburg.

2.     How would you support the Russians & the Europeans with this FSO network?

 

How do you establish a critical path for success to reboot Earth

    1. Quantum Key FSO System
    2. Baltics to Scotland to Goonhilly
    3. Norway, Denmark, Finland, Sweden
    4. St Petersburg to Scotland to Goonhilly
    5. Norway, Denmark, Finland,
    6. Scotland to Nova Scotia

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Mr. Wiseman then cautioned his young friends as to the habits they contracted in early life:—”Whatsoever a man soweth that shall he also reap.” You sow an act, you reap a habit (acts repeated constitute habits); you sow a habit, you reap a character; you sow a character, you reap a destiny. Let them, he said, cultivate habits of industry, application, and order, and they might rely upon it, with God’s blessing, they would succeed in life. (Applause.)

 

In 1856 a newspaper in Colchester, England reported on a speech delivered to students which contained a statement that has remained in circulation to the present day.


How vulnerable are our space assets to deliberate attack, both physical and otherwise, and what steps can be taken to improve their resilience (with regard both to defence capabilities and other critical national infrastructure)?

 

Is there a Chinese Wall between the space operations of these vendors and the collection of Gold Consumer Data from the UK general public?

All space vendors and aeronautical vendors that are from overseas how they are to keep UK data onshore and ensure that do not concatenate and collate with their international databases.

How can UK data stay in UK? Eg WhatsApp is owned from Facebook, yet UK government department hold UK private government conversations on a USA Facebook database that is owned from a US private corporation for private UK government business?

How can UK defence challenge the storage of UK defence related information off platforms that are not located in the UK?  A conversation held on WhatsApp is triangulated with the Facebook application and then government geo location of data people and conversations are not private, are they?

On Prem Cloud versus On Cloud and is your On cloud solution in UK or USA? Where is your Gold Data stored, are you allowing overseas operators to cherry pick your Gold Data from Internet, from Car data and concatenate this for future purposes that are unknown unknown to MoD, or Defence Sub Committee?

Is the UK supplied a manifest of every launch every satellite that is intended to collect UK data eg SpaceX is intending to launch future auto pilot Car services reliant on neural networks that turn on or off radar services depending on the function or location to a stationary or moving object that the car performs and satellite internet?

Has UK been given a schematic diagram of every satellite that is to collect and store data from the UK population and a clear understanding of how the neural network designs on the Tesla Autopilots work? Do you have clean and clear working understanding of the laser capabilities of satellites and their intersatellite capabilities that are acquiring and collecting UK citizen data.

 

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How does the laser inter satellite transfer of data take place and is any UK data stored and collected offshore on servers outside UK and used for any purpose? Is SpaceX collecting Data on the UK population and supplying this to any third parties?

Is Amazon delivery of Covid related tests stored in the UK or stored outside of the UK and is it collated with any other information to create databases of the UK population health data outside of the NHS? To be used with any of the Amazon or Blue Origin projects in the future.

 

Plant a thought and reap a word;
plant a word and reap an action;
plant an action and reap a habit;
plant a habit and reap a character;
plant a character and reap a destiny.

 

In 1872 an expression that closely matched the 1856 statement was printed in a newspaper in Iowa. 3 In 1885 a variant of the above saying was credited to Bishop Beckwaith.


How can defence industrial policy ensure that investment and innovation in the private space sector is harnessed to align with the UK’s defence requirements?

 

Space Based Power Generation

The ability to generate power in space and successfully transport it to Earth, is said to be the new space defence domain of interest. The first country with the ability to harness the power generation in Space, is said to be the country that has a strategic and tactical advantage beyond those that are unable to generate power in space.

The UK’s defence requirements policy now needs to mirror what is considered terrestrial bound infrastructures and replicate these in Space and defend them.

6G implications of shared spectrum and who is charging, and how each country that is sharing UK’s spectrum when do they pay, is it a mix of a telecommunications interconnect system and the national electricity pooling model.

UK Defence Industrial Policy will need to ensure how this will work when telecommunications and power have achieved the capability of distribution from Free Space Optical and lasers? The idea of Energy & Telecommunications in the same domain is a tactical and strategic pivot in how UK’s [v] defence policy requirements are considered.

LASER

Civilian

Military

Space

Capability

Telecommunications

Known

Known

Known

FSO

Weaponry

N/A

Known

Unknown

LASER GUIDANCE WITH GPS

Power Distribution

Unknown

Unknown

Unknown

USING FSO TO TAKE SOLAR POWER GENERATED IN SPACE TO EARTH

Power Distribution

Unknown

Unknown

Unknown

USING FSO TO TAKE SOLAR POWER GENERATED IN EARTH

Power Distribution

Unknown

Known

Unknown

USING LIFO TO TAKE POWER GENERATED IN EARTH to USE COMMS

 

Space Power & Telecommunications Transmission

One of the 6G space prototype opportunities available are the development of space-based boomerang[vi][vii] inspired spacecraft that could be deployed with solar panels on the upper levels for self-generated power and laser telecommunications printed with 3D printers in space-based lunar or Mars based research centres.

Basic prototyping of this micro laser[viii]  with infa red or green, laser spectrum to test power[ix] and telemetry [x] in lab-based scenarios are estimated at cost of £100k to build a prototype for signal detections, wavelength that can be extended to a lidar pulse system with budgets in excess of £500k with the goal of space-based GigaWatt generation and distribution.[xi]

Its always sunny in space[xii]  a number of objections were raised in the 1970’s to the idea of power generation in space such as the cost of infrastructure in space [xiii]

Objections

Hopes

Expense of putting the required materials in orbit 

It showed enough promise to merit further investigation and research

Lack of experience on projects of this scale in space

NASA asserted that the "US National Space Policy now calls for NASA to make significant investments in technology (not a particular vehicle) to drive the costs of ETO [Earth to Orbit] transportation down dramatically. This is, of course, an absolute requirement of space solar power

Too little is currently known about the technical, economic, and environmental aspects of SPS to make a sound decision whether to proceed with its development and deployment.

China proposed space collaboration with India that mentioned SBSP, "may be Space-based Solar Power initiative so that both India and China can work for long term association with proper funding along with other willing space faring nations to bring space solar power to earth.

Without further research an SPS demonstration or systems-engineering verification program would be a high-risk venture

In February 2019, China (CAST) announced long-term plans to build power satellites

Space-based solar is about five orders of magnitude more expensive than solar power from the Arizona desert, with a major cost being the transportation of materials to orbit.

JAXA announced on 12 March 2015 that they wirelessly beamed 1.8 kilowatts 50 meters to a small receiver by converting electricity to microwaves and then back to electricity. This is the standard plan for this type of power. On 12 March 2015 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries demonstrated transmission of 10 kilowatts (kW) of power to a receiver unit located at a distance of 500 meters (m) away.

 

 

Point to Point Defence Delivery

The innovation of 30min delivery for defence in a space port global network is the strategy that Defence forces are pivoting to. Once the dreams of Top Gun instructors to see a space port in every state in the USA in the 1980’s this capability is slowing evolving and building momentum for Defence leveraging from ideas such as SpacePort America[xiv] where Richard Branson’s Civilian Virgin Galactic[xv] flights to space are taking place from the spaceport[xvi].

The new hybrid strategy to support tactical and strategic, defence policy, includes every state in the USA to have a spaceport to support either supersonic, horizontal or vertical launch capabilities for defence to deliver within 30 minutes from point to point to increase rapid defence response capabilities.

For example, the global space port strategy, which I presented in Boulder, in 2020, would enable, a rapid response to famine. UK Defence Forces having previously secured and sourced pea protein from Belgium, the capability, to deliver to Ghana Space Port within 24 hours. For further delivery to Ethiopia, Sudan or any other area where food is needed, that the UK defence forces can assist in an emergency, with remote sensing and satellite tracking with GPS on each of the packages so they are tracked where they are deployed to ensure they arrive at the disaster hotspot.

To take this example further, if an extreme weather event or infrastructure failure occurred, space-based power generation, can be beamed to the space port closest to the area for storage in batteries and further distribution to places where land based national infrastructure is destroyed through natural disaster with assistance of defence [xvii].

 

Feeling issues in action, actions become habit, and habits crystallize into character. The formation of a good character, therefore, is largely dependent upon the right unfolding of feeling.

In 1897 a London periodical printed the outline of a sermon that was designed to instruct children about watchfulness: 6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Have recent machinery of government changes ensured a joined-up and coherent approach to defence space policy both across Whitehall and within the MoD?

 

This question is not able to be responded to as is outside the operational capabilities. As a British commercial corporation, Harlette Capital Ltd, are unable to answer a question in relation to the operational approach regarding Whitehall or MoD as this is not the field of experience of this corporation.

 

 

C—Companions. Watch your Companions. Birds of a feather flock together. Evil communications corrupt good manners. Be careful what friendships you make. We cannot touch pitch and remain undefiled.

 

W — Watch your Words.
A — Watch your Actions.
T — Watch your Thoughts.
C — Watch your Companions.
H — Watch your Habits.

What further improvements could be made? What should be the priorities of the new Space Command, and how will its structures facilitate integration across all military domains and co-operation with commercial space operations?

 

    1. Resilience Mirror Sites built in London offering services to Australia, Spain USA for power outages[xviii] or attacks etc When the power outages happened in USA[xix], Roscosmos had to run coverage & this is a service that UK can offer NASA for back up sites when issues with power in Texas.
    2. When Australia has denial of service attacks a mirror resilience site offering as a space bridge partner can you cut over in less than a denial of service attack.
    3. NANO sat site tracking there are examples of nano sats that are launched and unable to identified up to 60 days at what point is this a rouge Nano satellite

 

 

Out of feelings, it has been said, spring actions; actions become habit; and habits crystallize into character. The great functions of the mind should work in harmony, and should be educated to work so.

How can the Ministry of Defence ensure that it attracts, develops and retains high calibre space specialists in both policy and operational roles

 

 

Begin by holding up a watch. Ask some child to tell you audibly the name of the object which you are exhibiting. The reply will be “A Watch.” Ask another child to spell the word “watch.”‘ You will get for answer “W-A-T-C-H.” Then put away your watch, for you are going to speak about time and its division of hours, minutes, and seconds. Ask for a word beginning with W, and suggest that you have just given one—word. Well, then, watch your words. Speak of the sins of the tongue. “Set a watch, O Lord, before my mouth, and keep the door of my lips.”

In 1897 a London periodical printed the outline of a sermon that was designed to instruct children about watchfulness: 6

 

 

Finally, by May 1977 a close match to the questioner’s version was printed in a Texas newspaper: 13

“Watch your thoughts, they become words;
watch your words, they become actions;
watch your actions, they become habits;
watch your habits, they become character;
Watch your character, for it becomes your destiny.”[xx]

 

 

 

29 June 2021

 

 

Kind Regards

Naomi McGill

MBA, B.IT

 

To read some of my recent contributions[xxi] please refer to this link[xxii]

 

Speaker - Space Debris Impact on Space Tourism Telecommunications

Defence Satellites Paris Jun 6th 2018 http://www.intelligence-sec.com/events/defence-satellites-2018/speaker-biographies-2384/naomi-mcgill

Speaker - Lightening Talk Space Debris Impact on Space Tourism Telecommunications

New Generation Sub Orbital Research Conference Boulder USA Dec 18th-20th 2017 http://www.boulder.swri.edu/NSRC2017/Site4/PDF/McGill.pdf

Speaker - Space Debris Impact on Space Tourism Telecommunications

IRG Brighton UK October 25th 2017

Speaker – Global Free Space Optical Network for Space Ports New Generation Sub Orbital Research Conference Boulder USA 3rd March 2020 https://www.boulder.swri.edu/NSRC2020/Site5/PDF/McGill.pdf

 


[i] Design and flight results of the VHF/UHF communication system of Longjiang lunar microsatellites - NASA/ADS (harvard.edu)

 

[ii] Design and flight results of the VHF/UHF communication system of Longjiang lunar microsatellites | Nature Communications

 

[iii] House of Lords - Brexit: future UK–EU security and police cooperation - European Union Committee (parliament.uk)

 

[iv] “The alligator nearest the boat” — the perilous future of UK-EU security | by Nick Kenny | LawSpring

 

[v] ACT-RPR-NRG-2009-SPS-ICSOS-concepts-for-laser-WPT.pdf (esa.int)

[vi] Airfoil - Wikipedia

[vii] Boomerang - Wikipedia

[viii]  www.rpmclasers.com

[ix]

Wireless Laser Power Transmission: A Review of Recent Progress | IEEE Journals & Magazine | IEEE Xplore

[x] Diode Lasers and Systems (cw and pulsed) products - Photonic Solutions, UK.

[xi] Research & Collaboration - Sivers Semiconductors (sivers-semiconductors.com)

[xii] It's always sunny in space | IEEE Journals & Magazine | IEEE Xplore

[xiii] China plans a solar power play in space that NASA abandoned long ago (cnbc.com)

[xiv] Spaceport America-The World's First Purpose-Built Commercial Spaceport

[xv] Virgin Galactic

[xvi] Virgin Galactic Enters Space Act Agreement with NASA To Advance High Mach Technologies - Virgin Galactic

[xvii] Military success for pureLiFi in biggest-ever light technology deployment | HeraldScotland

[xviii] Extreme Winter Weather Causes U.S. Blackouts (nasa.gov)

[xix] Disastrous Houston blackouts captured from space | Live Science

[xx]Watch Your Thoughts, They Become Words; Watch Your Words, They Become Actions – Quote Investigator

 

[xxi] McGill.pdf (swri.edu)

 

[xxii] https://committees.parliament.uk/work/134/the-security-of-5g/publications/written-evidence/