Dr Elizabeth Durden-Myers – Supplementary written evidence (NPS0150)

Dr Liz Durden-Myers PhD MSc MA BA(Hons) QTS FRSA FHEA FCCT

Senior Lecturer in Physical Education, Bath Spa University

Lecturer in Physical Education, The University of Gloucestershire

Past Chair, The International Physical Literacy Association

 

Opening Statement

Thank you for the opportunity to provide further evidence regarding how community sport can enhance and enrich the physical education and school sport (PESS) offer, and how PESS can support participation in sport and physical activity within the community.

 

Response to Questions

 

1.       Successful examples of and considerations for community sport and school partnerships / for multi-activity delivery within community sport

 

While there will be many more examples of best practice across England at an individual organisation and regional level, I would like to draw the Committee’s attention to a successful project led by Sport Wales as a case study for how the above can be facilitated and local provision enhanced within school physical education and community sport.

 

Sport Wales: Physical Literacy Consultancy Review

 

Introduction and background

“Physical literacy can be described as the motivation, confidence, physical competence, knowledge and understanding to value and take responsibility for engagement in physical activities for life.”

International Physical Literacy Association (IPLA, 2017)

 

Sport Wales has been working with the concept of physical literacy since 2008, when an opportunity to work with the Department for Education and Skills in Welsh Government arose as the new Foundation Phase in Wales was developed. Over a three year period, partners developed Play to Learn, a set of resources that could be used to support children to become physically literate across the curriculum. In 2010, a new Vision for Sport Wales followed, highlighting the importance of developing skills and confidence to participate and enjoy a life in sport, in its broadest sense. There was a movement towards a physical literacy journey, rather than age or sport-specific programmes.

 

In 2014, Sport Wales introduced the Physical Literacy Programme for Schools (PLPS), acknowledging the recommendations of the Welsh Government Physical Activity Report (2014).  The most recent outcome of this investment was to embed physical literacy at the heart of ‘Physical Literacy beacon schools’ for pupils to become ‘healthy and confident young people’ who build regular physical activity into their lives. The SPEAR Impact Evaluation Report[1] of the PLPS programme and the Physical Literacy Framework (now known as the Physical Literacy Journey or PLJ) highlighted the impact of PLPS interventions on young people. It reported improvements in young people’s physical, social and emotional development, as well as young people’s engagement, attendance and behaviour. It also demonstrated the effective pedagogy utilised within these interventions[2]

 

The PLPS programme funding ended in 2017. More recently, following the 2015 Donaldson review,[3] Sport Wales was commissioned by The Welsh Government to create a physical literacy framework to support the development of the new curriculum for Wales[4]. As a result, the Physical Literacy Journey (PLJ)[5] was created.

 

The notion of what ‘physical literacy’ is, its definition and the communication and messaging around it has long been problematic.  It has been seen as overly complex, academic and education-based, and this may be a result of much of the physical literacy work in Wales has focussed on educational settings. In more recent years, developing physical literacy through community settings, NGBs and organisations like the Urdd has had a greater focus. Translating what physical literacy means in practice for the sports sector is the next stage for Sport Wales.

 

Aim of this review

 

The Sport Wales Foundations and Participation Lead is a new organisational role. This review will help the Sport Wales lead develop an understanding of work that has taken place to date, to inform future work in this area. The review will explore the outcomes of the physical literacy consultancy support and the impact for the National Governing Bodies of Sport (NGBs) and two other delivery organisations involved.

 

The review considers the potential next steps in the context of the new Vision for Sport in Wales[6] and the Sport Wales’ strategy[7]. Efforts to develop physical literacy (among all age groups) can contribute to each of the six areas of strategic intent that will shape the way Sport Wales works in the future. Of particular importance will be area 2: ‘To give every young person a great start’: every young person has the skills, confidence and motivation to enable them to enjoy and progress through sport; giving them foundations to lead an active, healthy and enriched life.

 

Method

 

A series of semi-structured interviews took place via Zoom and Teams. A topic guide was developed to explore the views of firstly the consultants - to understand what activities had taken place - followed by interviews with representatives of the NGBs and organisations supported. Interviews lasted around an hour and took place between December 2020 and February 2021. Interviews took place with 18 representatives (8 consultants, 10 NGBs/organisations). A joint meeting for all consultants organised by Sport Wales also provided an opportunity to discuss emerging themes.

 

The remainder of this report covers:

 

  1. The consultancy support approach
  2. Emerging outcomes and impact.
  3. Barriers and challenges for NGBs in embedding physical literacy
  4. Learning points and next steps

Section 1: The consultancy support approach

 

Physical Literacy provides Sport Wales with opportunities for cross-collaboration involving sport, education and health sectors. Securing the support of consultants has been important to assist in this process. In the autumn of 2017, Sport Wales issued an invitation to tender for a consultant or consultants to work with NGBs and others to:

 

 

It was anticipated that the work package would amount to a maximum of 200 days over an 18-month period (equivalent to 3 days per week). The exact allocation of days would be subject to the capacity of the successful consultant(s) to undertake the work required and the cost, and the contracts for the work would run from October 2017 to 31st March 2019[8]. Typically, the allocation ranged between 5 and 15 days per organisation. Nine consultants were appointed, providing support to seven NGBs, the Urdd, and Actif Sport and Leisure (Carmarthenshire local authority), covering different areas of Wales. Six of the consultants worked in pairs. The consultants are based in Higher Education (HE) institutions and the International Physical Literacy Association (IPAL).

 

As stated in the invitation to tender, the consultants were required to:

 

 

With NGBs at different stages in their approach to physical literacy, the consultancy support was tailored rather than a standard ‘offer’ being provided. The specific support included:

 

          The creation of a community physical literacy course and delivery of versions of this to NGB staff and some coaches, including at NGB conferences/events.

          Leading and facilitating discussions about physical literacy with the NGB workforce and partners.

          Reviewing existing courses and developing to include physical literacy.

          Piloting specific physical literacy projects with NGBs and reviewing.

          Research and evaluation support through linked KESS PhD students.

 

Section 2 considers the emerging outcomes and impact of this support.

 

Section 2: Outcomes

 

Community physical literacy course

 

One of the primary outputs from the consultancy support has been the development of a generic community physical literacy course. Three consultants worked on the creation of the course, and the process included a two pilots and internal validation with the other consultants. There was confidence in the course, however, plans to roll it out further and distribute it stalled, believed to be a result of staff changes and a restructuring exercise in Sport Wales.

 

NGBs had been asking for this kind of course and it is described as ‘deliberately broad’, developed as a product that could be used and tweaked to make it specific to any NGB or organisation that delivers physical activity. It could be adapted for different sports, or delivery in settings such as nurseries, scouts and guides groups and so on.  It includes some consistent core messages, along with a section that can be tailored to make it specific to an NGB’s own context. It has had continuous iterations and consultants have delivered bespoke versions of it to several different partners, including short versions at conferences and NGB events. Examples of recipients include the WRU, Swim Wales and the Urdd.

 

Delivery of the training is framed in a way that resonates with the audience and uses examples from the sport’s own settings. This, and the delivery approach of the consultants was well received. Interviewees described consultants positively; for example one interviewee reported that the consultants were ‘fantastic’: “…The way they pitched physical literacy to young people was great…they have the background and empathy with young people and staff. It was really enjoyable to watch our staff taking that kind of thing on board”. What has worked well was consultants showing organisations how physical literacy could be part of existing structures and programmes, presenting a middle ground between the academic concepts and practical delivery.

 

Beyond Wales, the course has had a wider impact. Through contacts in the IPLA, Dumfries and Galloway NHS asked to have the course to run in Scotland. Consultants trained some of the Scottish providers and it has been accredited. The IPLA are also interested in using the course as a development course. The course is considered to have great potential and there are multiple outlets for it. 

 

There was consistent feedback from interviewees that a key next step would be to revisit this course and the workshop approach and turn it into an online resource which could be accessed as independent learning, and/or as a tutored webinar approach. The course would likely have greater reach if aspects of it can be accessed in people’s own time. There would then be opportunities to use consultants to bring groups of practitioners together to have a facilitated discussions about how to put the approaches into practice and implement them locally. This is where consultants could offer value - and there are opportunities to do this both virtually and face to face when restrictions on gatherings allow.

 

Support in leading and facilitating discussions about physical literacy

 

Initial discussions between consultants, NGBs and Sport Wales officers identified areas the NGB wanted to focus on. For some of the smaller NGBs, all staff members were involved - for others, specific teams were provided with training. Some NGBs wanted to develop their resources and the age groups they worked with, particularly younger children. One driver for this was partly seeing children entering sports clubs and the performance pathway lacking basic movement skills. Building confidence and enjoyment and providing fun, inclusive sessions was also a goal. Some NGBs looked at family approaches, and others linked with schools and local authority teams.

 

Interviewees valued the consultants’ support in leading discussions with both internal staff teams and external partners, and consultants themselves spoke about developing their negotiation and facilitation skills as a result of the work. In some NGBs, physical literacy as a concept and approach has become well established. In others, it is a newer concept, and may be led by one or two individuals. The consultants’ expertise and understanding of the academic research that underpins the importance of physical literacy helped individuals present a case for doing more to embed physical literacy. Interviewees spoke about how the message coming from an external, respected individuals in the field gave weight to the case they were making internally. They could back up the discussions with evidence and examples and NGB representatives welcomed this. The consultants’ negotiating and facilitating skills helped them to achieve common ground and agree actions and resources. Interviewees felt that what worked well was when the consultants able to relate the concept to ‘on the ground’ delivery and examples, having a good understanding of how things work in practice in a particular sport/region.  This was a key part of getting buy in from workforce and translating the concepts from academic theory to delivery. Consultants used the physical literacy journey visuals and the ‘Amelia’ videos to debunk the perceived complexity of physical literacy. NGBs representatives spoke about how it helped when people could see that in many cases, they were already working in a way that supported participants to be ‘physically literate’, even if not defined in these terms.

 

“The majority of people might see that (physical literacy) as quite a scary thing or too high end where actually it’s not, it’s just seems over complicated. It’s knowing what good practice can look like… we just feel it needs to be softer, speak in the language and context if it’s going to be going back into the communities. It needs to be written in the context of community volunteers.”

 

Pilot Projects and research support

 

In two areas, specific projects were developed where consultants provided longer term support, and both are benefiting from the involvement of KESS 2 funded students.

 

FAW Trust

The organisation already had plans to develop physical literacy and embed it into their engagement programme – and so the offer of consultancy support via Sport Wales was timely. It allowed the organisation to work with a consultant to develop a product for young children and families, creating a new approach for the NGB, opening up their work to the under sevens.

 

Informed by research and evidence, ‘Footie Families’ was created – a means of developing physically literate confident young people (not necessarily footballers) who would be able to take part in sport for the long term. The programme is designed for parents and their young children to play together and engage in fun activities, to help develop fundamental movement skills. Footie Families was piloted and reviewed in Ceredigion and Powys with positive results. “It is about creating a fun environment where you can be appropriately challenged and supported”.

 

As a large sport, the NGB feel they have a role to play in leading the way to develop physically literate children at the earliest age possible. Using the power of football as a draw, the organisation can reach large numbers of future participants. The enforced pause from the pandemic given FAWT an opportunity to trial and test the products online and engage with families in alternative ways. This has proved successful and may reach more people as a result. The NGB intends to continue using a blended approach when restrictions are eased but there are clear benefits to online resources in removing access barriers and allowing people to do things in their own time. Face to face points will be added during the year.

 

The consultancy support has been valued and the NGB has continued to work with the consultant beyond the Sport Wales funded project. The project also benefits from having the input of a KESS 2 funded student who is supporting the roll out of Footie Families and reviewing the process and impact as part of a PhD. https://www.fawtrust.cymru/grassroots/footiefamilies/

 

Welsh Triathlon and Actif Sport and Leisure.

Partners spoke about their rationale for the project: NGB representatives had noticed that children entering their clubs and the talent pathway lacked basic movement skills and considered that a focus on physical literacy earlier in their participation journey could help those children. Meanwhile, the Actif Sport and Leisure team in Carmarthenshire had already adopted a physical literacy approach to their work and had a series of sport ‘passports’ to help children develop the skills, motivation and confidence to take part in activity for life, introducing children to physical activity, teaching them the basic physical skills in a fun and friendly environment. Triathlon was a focus sport in the authority and it provided an ideal opportunity to work in partnership and develop the approach further.

 

Consultants facilitated meetings between the organisations and managed negotiations to ensure a collaborative process. Development and Performance teams in the NGB worked side by side on the project seeing mutual gains. The partnership worked well. Interviewees and spoke about how the three parties were all supportive and enthusiastic: “definitely one of the best collaborations we have worked on”. Cardiff Met were instrumental in bringing the pedagogical aspects, Welsh Triathlon the sport specific side and the local authority brought expertise in implementing it on the ground with their community connections.

 

The group developed a new Physical Literacy Activators course for teachers, piloted in 2020: “The prime goal of the physical literacy activators course is to expose primary aged children to high quality, fun and inclusive Triathlon sessions, giving them the confidence, motivation, knowledge and understanding to participate in lifelong physical activity”. The training and resource for schools allowed the school to deliver triathlon activities for 6 weeks on their site and then to come to a non-competitive festival in the leisure centre. “It was really well received”.

 

Schools who have attended the festival want to return, creating an operational challenge for the authority in rolling out the offer to more schools. Use of a leisure centre for a whole day means a loss of income, so a charge of £4-£5 per pupil is being considered for returning school festivals. Schools report they are willing to have this charge and may subsidise it for pupils as a school trip.

 

Welsh Triathlon want to embed physical literacy into school practice in line with the Curriculum for Wales and spoke about other outcomes: “It has influenced our coach education programme; we now have a unique course designed within our coach education programme. Elements of physical literacy have now been added to the Level 1 and 2 coach education course content in Wales…Physical Literacy within Welsh Triathlon had completely changed over the past two years, with the support offered to us, it is now within our NGB strategy moving forward.”

 

The consultants were considered to have over-delivered with the amount of face to face and virtual support they offered. The partnership decided to have weekly feedback sessions via video to discuss how the project was unfolding and this process worked well and kept momentum and an opportunity for ongoing review and improvement.

 

The partnership will continue to benefit from a KESS 2 funded PHD student who helped develop key elements of the resources and course content, as well providing quality research and evidence.

 

Reviewing existing resources and coach education courses to include physical literacy

 

In several of the NGBs that consultants worked with, the support has helped the NGB make changes to leaders and activators courses in order to include and embed a physical literacy approach throughout the coaching pathway. NGBs plan to build this in at the start of the coaching journey. For example, during 2020 Welsh Gymnastics reviewed their Sports Leaders course and included a section on physical literacy – to create understanding and awareness from the outset. Welsh Triathlon and Actif in Carmarthenshire developed and tested their Physical Literacy Activators course for teachers. The Urdd have provided the community course to all their staff, delivered by the consultants.

 

Other NGBs plan to do this as a next step – Welsh Netball aim to embed physical literacy at all stages of their coaching pathway and are able to do this through their in house development of workshops. Swim Wales hope to adapt the existing community course and tailor it for aquatics settings. WRU plan to include physical literacy in their coach development programme. Most importantly, some NGBs now have clear references to the development of physical literacy in their strategies and policy documentation, suggesting that it is likely to be resourced and reviewed at an organisation level.

 

Although it is too early to assess any impact of these changes, the adaptations made to coaching pathways and staff training, and inclusion of the concept in organisational strategy are likely to be key enablers that could help embed a way of working and approach to delivering sport and physical activity that could lead to greater levels of physical literacy among participants in the longer term.

 

“I definitely think as an organisation everyone is buying into it a lot more and the terminology is being used a lot more and when people are doing things, they are now thinking ‘how can we incorporate physical literacy?’ or ‘is there a way physical literacy can be pushed as part of this project as well?’”

As with most funded programmes, activities planned for 2020 and face to face delivery approaches were delayed as a result of Covid-19 restrictions. A few of the days allocated to NGBs are yet to be used, and consultants will continue to provide the remaining support when safe resumption of delivery can take place. As part of this future work, it may be beneficial to explore ways in which outcomes and impact could be measured in the longer term.

Section 3. Barriers and challenges

 

The overwhelming challenge has of course been the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic and for NGBs, the return to sport and the importance of maintaining their clubs and providers who deliver opportunities is the immediate concern. The NGB workforce themselves have also experienced furlough and restructuring which has hindered progress. However, the enforced pause in delivery has also offered a chance to reset and review priority areas and allowed partners to look at ways to deliver and share approaches remotely.

 

NGBs have varying levels of in-house resources and staff capacity, and the ability to develop and review new approaches can be affected by short term funding cycles, competition seasons, and the need to prepare for key events and stages across the year. This has resulted in a somewhat a stop-start approach to doing more with physical literacy and engagement with the consultancy approach. Some NGBs have fewer than ten staff and embedding physical literacy within current work programmes could be a full time role in itself. While it can be easier to embed the approach and upskill all staff in smaller NGBs, there is then less capacity to roll out and deliver the approach across Wales. There is risk that quality and aspects of an approach may get ‘diluted’ as learning is cascaded – as would be the case for any new training/skill that is being rolled out. 

 

Many of the interviewees felt that a barrier to taking the physical literacy work through to the next stage would be the ability to embed the approach across the wider workforce, beyond the NGB core staff. This requires the engagement of coaches and volunteers working in clubs and communities. As one interviewee described: “Physical literacy is embedded across all of our framework when you go into it in depth - but the challenge we have is in the delivery of it, and the understanding of the wider benefits and impacts it is having – a lot of our people are very tunnel-visioned…”

 

Another pointed out: “The support they have given has been brilliant and obviously from my point of view I like to think I am a big advocate and have a solid understanding, but it’s how to get that out from me to our wider audience.”

 

An area where NGBs would like further support from Sport Wales/consultants was in relation to the new curriculum for Wales. For some, the new curriculum was highlighted as a priority issue and there was a desire to have the support of consultants to make the case with policy teams around the importance of developing life skills, especially water safety, feature so that pupils are equipped with the skills that allow them to take part in sport and physical activity. 

 

A much wider and longer term challenge raised was the need to share and promote the physical literacy message with parents and demonstrate the benefits of a multi skills approach with an emphasis on fun, building confidence, motivation and basic skills that will support participation in any number of individual sports. As one interviewee commented: “We tried to deliver multi skills sessions as independent sessions for young people – the challenge we had was a real lack of education and awareness among parents about what this meant and what the session was. If we promoted it as a ‘rugby’ session with basically exactly the same content {as multi skills} but had ‘rugby’ on the title, it had much better buy in”. 

 

Changing mindsets, especially among larger NGBs where there are several staff teams and areas of the business to work with can take time. Coach education teams naturally tend to be focussed on developing skills in their own specific sport and with an end goal of performance and competition. In this scenario, consultants can help facilitate open and honest conversations about the purpose of the work. It was found to be easier to make the case for physical literacy if different teams are listened to and brought into discussions to help shape the approach. The consultancy support was felt to be a good start point in making this happen.

 

“The investment of time, resource, and someone to encourage, facilitate, that was really key to the start to get the NGBs going and then they can lead themselves – I still think the continued investment is needed because they are so depleted. That gentle encouragement, where are we, helping put together or facilitate thought on how this can be embedded, present ideas, they can disagree, ultimately they are in the environment and know their members”.

 

To this end, the approach is felt to work best when there is commitment at a senior level rather than reliance on one or two individuals who want to develop physical literacy. As one consultant suggested: “If I took a step back, a lot of it is a cultural change, it is more than importing an external expert, it is more about {the consultant} working in house rather than just bolting onto projects they are already doing rather than fundamentally changing”. However, in some cases, external decisions and governance are a barrier to making desired changes in house. Examples include where Welsh NGBs would like to make changes to existing resources and coach education qualifications, but these are owned and accredited by UK level NGBs, training providers and partners.

 

The investment in a selection of NGBs has helped a sample of sports who were willing and in a position to address this area of work, but there was a lack of clarity about the overall strategic approach to this by Sport Wales and a lack of awareness of what other sports and partners were doing in this area. “I feel like we’re all working on physical literacy and we want to develop it more, but we’re not shouting about all the things we’re doing so people don’t know what’s happening? I think that’s really important …it might not necessarily have clear outcomes but it is having that impact on the community which I know is part of Sport Wales’ new vision, it is not necessarily about the end goal being medals, it is about the journey and I think maybe if we just shout more about the work that’s being done in the field then that would help”.

 

Annual reviews with Sport Wales about this consultancy support project would be welcomed by NGBs and could help communicate some of the above uncertainty. There has been a tendency for sports to work in isolation and past performance monitoring linked to funding may have exacerbated that way of working. Individual sports ‘compete’ for the same young people in communities, and schools may be approached by multiple NGBs as well as having contact with local authority sports development teams and leisure services and trusts. Resources can be developed in silos, and understandably, there is a desire for each organisation to have its own resources and products for the commercial opportunities that brings. There are good pockets of collaborative working emerging that can help to avoid this scenario - and provide a better experience for the end user so that the product and messaging is seamless rather than having access to many different offers where the quality of the experience may be inconsistent. As one interviewee noted, the underlying principle is that the approach can create a better experience for the participant, and help support increased participation and retention:

 

“I actually genuinely think that with physical literacy, it is the area where we can really drive that collaborative approach across sports. And you can get a group of sports that wouldn’t traditionally want to work together possibly more willing to work collaboratively on this initiative because it is there to try and develop more confident and skilled young people to take part in sport and we will all reap the benefits eventually at various points because hopefully we will have more people who want to take part in sport and grow that base of people…”

4. Conclusion and next steps

 

Over the past two years, despite the challenges of adapting to the pandemic and pressures on staff resourcing, the consultancy provision for physical literacy has helped contribute to several positive outcomes and successes:

 

 

The approach of bringing in external consultants with physical literacy expertise was seen as an appropriate way to support NGBs and other delivery organisations. It acted as a catalyst to help take forward ideas and plans. Often there was a willingness to make changes and drawing on the expertise and evidence based approaches that consultants could share was welcomed.

 

“The real high value piece was the ability to test things in real time, not just see on paper - very good open and honest discussion – we didn’t agree on everything which is fine and right and I still think there are some strides to be made.”

 

“Please keep them! We’ve had minimal direct use to date but there are loads of opportunities and we need that support and are very open to that support”.

 

Although good progress has been made, it was felt that a one hit approach would not enable a sustained approach to embedding physical literacy in community sport. Further support would be welcomed to continue to roll out plans that were developed pre-Covid-19 and to provide training to additional workforce teams, developing a better skilled workforce across a range of sports, with transferable skills. Using the consultancy support to train new physical literacy tutors in house in NGBs and delivery organisations was also suggested as a means of extending the reach and creating a sustainable approach. As well as bringing in additional sports, extending the training to community coaches, volunteers and parents was viewed as an important area to tackle.

 

Interviewees felt that an important next step would be to improve communication around the work that has been taking place and build a closer network. There were known to be many pockets of good practice, but there was not a clear mechanism to raise awareness and share learning. It was felt that Sport Wales could play a key role here in bringing together consultants, and bringing together sports and delivery partners to share what had been achieved so far and review and inform next steps.

 

Finally there was a real desire among interviewees for Sport Wales to keep the commitment to this area of work and to continue to resource it internally within Sport Wales, with potential benefits for Wales as a leading country in physical literacy. NGBs remain a key target group who can benefit from consultancy support – having connections with participants at all ages and stages of their physical literacy journey.

 

Recommendations

 

 

Figure 1: A model for embedding physical literacy in NGBs and measuring progress?

 

Diagram showing the enablers (the necessary conditions), the 'how' (the activities taking place and the outcomes (the results).

Becca Mattingley

Version 1 200223

 

*Please note this project in now in its second phase of development with a network focus / structure using consultants in conjunction with Sport Wales’s strategy to support and encourage organisations to work more collaboratively across a targeted network.

 

Closing Statement

This case study exemplifies why a new sport and recreation policy is required so that organisations can look to create projects and initiatives (such as the Physical Literacy Consultancy Project by Sport Wales), that directly supports progress towards specific objectives and aims. A National Policy would outline key features of provision, practice, and create a range of opportunities within the local community across a range of settings and enable organisations to clearly identify how their physical activity provision contributes towards the local offer, and engagement in physical activity throughout life more broadly. Central to the success of this project was the use of supportive advocates (physical literacy consultants) that could help translate and embed core principles within local policy and practice. A call for a more networked and collaborative approach was notable with aims to collectively pool resources, experience, expertise and opportunities in the interest of getting children and adults active and participating in sport and physical activity in its broadest sense. 

 

Thank you for the invitation to respond to this call for evidence. I look forward to following the progress of the new National Plan for Sport and Recreation. Please let me know if I can be of any further assistance.

 

With thanks to Sport Wales.

 

25 March 2021


[1] SPEAR (Sport, Physical Education and Activity Research, Canterbury Christ Church University) Impact Evaluation Report 2016. https://www.canterbury.ac.uk/science-engineering-and-social-sciences/spear/research-projects/physical-literacy-for-schools.aspx

[2] Whitehead, M. ed., 2019. Physical literacy across the world. Routledge.

[3] Donaldson, G., 2015. Successful futures: Independent review of curriculum and assessment arrangements in Wales. Welsh Government. Available at: https://gov.wales/sites/default/files/publications/2018-03/successful-futures.pdf (Accessed February 2021)

[4] https://hwb.gov.wales/curriculum-for-wales/?_ga=2.113314311.1629102861.1613912432-340930801.1610297550

[5] https://www.physicalliteracyjourney.wales/ and https://www.physicalliteracyjourney.wales/home/

[6] https://visionforsport.wales/

[7] https://futures.sport.wales/#1

[8] Sport Wales Specification for a contract and invitation to tender – as posted on Sell2Wales in August 2017