Written evidence submitted by Energy Systems Catapult (DHH0063)

 

About Energy Systems Catapult

Energy Systems Catapult (ESC) was set up to accelerate the transformation of the UK’s energy system and ensure UK businesses and consumers capture the opportunities of clean growth. The Catapult is an independent, not-for-profit centre of excellence that bridges the gap between industry, government, academia and research. We take a whole-system view of the energy sector, helping us to identify and address innovation priorities and market barriers, in order to decarbonise the energy system at the lowest cost.

We welcome the opportunity to comment on the Decarbonising heat in homes inquiry. ESC has significant expertise in the decarbonisation of heat and buildings, based on our extensive work on Zero Carbon Buildings policy, the delivery of large-scale innovation trials through our Living Lab and our work with innovators in the emerging Digital & Data space.

             

 

Summary

Decarbonising heat in homes is one of the UK’s biggest challenges, with heating of space and water accounting for around 15% of total greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, heating in the UK is dominated by fossil fuels, with around 85% of homes supplied directly by the gas grid.[1] Low carbon alternatives, whilst gaining traction in the space, remain ultimately outside of the mainstream and the skills to build and manage these systems are not widespread, with high upfront costs and consumer awareness remaining a barrier for many property owners.

Additionally, there is a significant imbalance in the UK’s approach to energy pricing. Gas bills do not include a carbon price or any environmental levies, whilst electricity bills do include a carbon tax, with the additional costs of subsidies layered on top. This tilts the competitive playing field towards to the incumbent fossil fuel-based technology, and undermines  incentives both for consumers to switch away from gas heating and for investment by innovators in developing low carbon alternatives.

 

We have been working on the challenges of decarbonising buildings across the UK, and have pioneered new concepts which could be used to deliver such policy targets including:

1)      Funding a new wave of place-based programmes – investing strategically in energy improvement, retrofit and skills development could hold the key to building up demand and driving long term market competitiveness for low carbon solutions by region or area. This could involve a mix of public investment, coordinated by local authorities (e.g. from post-Brexit regional ‘prosperity’ funds) as well as private sector partners and contributions from existing funding programmes

2)      Rolling out Local Area Energy Planning (LAEP) – by using robust data analysis to create integrated local energy plans, decarbonisation can be driven through coordinated investment in energy infrastructure from a whole systems perspective. LAEP is a critical enabler of decarbonisation and is a method for analysing cost-effective, low carbon solutions for a local area and its energy systems.

3)      Making energy networks invest to reach Net Zero carbon – with Ofgem re-engineering its RIIO processes and guidance, ESC have been advising and supporting the regulator with the future development of the RIIO2 price control framework, with LAEP put forward as a possible model to guide strategic investment for electricity distribution networks (DNOs)[2]

4)      Phasing in carbon performance requirements across all buildings – akin to an MOT required by car owners, minimum standards based on carbon emissions could phased in to address building carbon performance, perhaps introduced at the point of sale, or when a property changes hands. Over time, markets could open up and competition could help tip the balance for property owners in favour of low carbon technologies.

5)      Rewarding low carbon choices through energy billsa new carbon credits scheme could reward consumers to reduce their actual carbon emissions through their energy bills. Working alongside Step 4, suppliers could measure actual usage against a carbon performance benchmark which tightens over time. When a property’s emissions fall below or above that benchmark, the property owner is then given a respective bill reduction or surcharge.

6)      Building markets for new finance products for low carbon solutions – helping people to afford the upfront cost of low carbon solutions will be key to heat decarbonisation. As well as public grants and funding, government could encourage private markets to develop and offer green mortgage-style services to encourage uptake of low carbon products.

 

 

  1. What has been the impact of past and current policies for low carbon heat, and what lessons can be learnt, including examples from devolved administrations and international comparators?

 

The UK has clear, legally binding targets to reduce carbon emissions to Net Zero by 2050 however there are several lessons to learn from current and previous policy approaches. Heat policy initiatives in the UK comprise different taxes, subsidies, contracts, obligations, standards and regulations, which are often complex and changing. Our work on Rethinking Decarbonisation Incentives (RDI) highlights the fact that varying effective carbon prices across different sectors in the economy lead to mixed incentives for carbon reduction in those sectors. For example, carbon emissions from residential gas use (which accounts for around 10-11% of total emissions) are not priced with an effective carbon price, and VAT is charged at only 5%.[3]

One of the challenges the UK must address in its future Heat and Buildings strategy is how to incentivise action and encourage investment and innovation across a range of stakeholders. As highlighted further in the RDI report, direct carbon pricing may be difficult to introduce in the residential heat sector. Alternative approaches for example, carbon standards may be a better approach to driving the uptake of low carbon alternatives. Standards can be combined with tradeable carbon credits to give flexibility in compliance and link sectors.

The impact of policies based on subsidising early uptake of low carbon options has been mixed, with schemes such as the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) criticised for slow uptake and dominated by biomass boilers. Further concerns around cost-effectiveness, monitoring and compliance (including overpayments for ineligible uses of generated heat) have also been cited as shortfalls of the policy. Stimulating large-scale uptake is reliant on a complex web of consumer trust, desirability and affordability, which in turn requires local coordination of investment in local energy infrastructure and the building up of local supply chains and skills development.

Energy Efficiency policy is a devolved issue, for instance Scotland has taken a phased approach to introducing minimum energy efficiency standards in the Private Rental Sector, with tightening regulation targeting particular Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) bandings (where technically feasible and cost effective).[4] In our response to the Energy Efficient Scotland consultation, we strongly support Scottish Government’s focus to improve Energy Efficiency of all buildings, however we stressed the importance of understanding local and spatial constraints in delivering heat decarbonisation and the need for an enduring policy framework to drive building decarbonisation, based on a mix of new planning processes, standards, obligations, subsidies and market incentives to drive action and restructuring throughout the supply chain.

Our evidence review for Scottish Government published by ClimateXChange explored public awareness of and attitudes towards low-carbon heating technologies and revealed some important insights. Two key themes emerged which put people off from switching to low carbon systems, namely expected cost, and uncertainty about performance. Further, it pointed out that raising awareness of low-carbon systems may not be enough to drive uptake, and even when financial support persuades some to adopt low-carbon heating alternatives it is not a key decision point for all, and alone is not enough to drive mass uptake.[5]

A trial ran by ESC explored how to increase consumer confidence in gas boiler alternatives which found that even when heat pumps were offered for free it was difficult to persuade owner occupiers to test out alternative heating systems.[6] As previous policies have highlighted, relying exclusively on individual subsidies to drive the low carbon heat transition risks missing opportunities to coordinate action across local areas. A well-designed overall solution must work for individual households (which could target issues such as damp from insulation, comfort and cost), but it must also for work for localities (which may wish to address heat decarbonisation at scale).

Local Area Energy Plans could be used to understand and evaluate the cost-optimal solutions for local areas given a localities’ characteristics. Local Area Energy Planning (LAEP) is a method for analysing cost effective, low carbon solutions for a local area and its energy systems. International case studies highlight good examples of local energy planning in practice (e.g. Utrecht in the Netherlands), with regional government involvement in energy planning at a level between local and national planning.[7]

 

  1. What key policies, priorities and timelines should be included in the Government’s forthcoming ‘Buildings and Heat Strategy’ to ensure that the UK is on track to deliver Net Zero? What are the most urgent decisions and actions that need to be taken over the course of this Parliament (by 2024)?

 

The current policy framework for decarbonising the UK’s building stock is disjointed, weak and overall does not send the right signals or create the right incentives for parties to take appropriate action to reduce carbon emissions from heating. Government should consider a long-term policy framework which is broadly technology-neutral but informed by local planning and prioritisation processes. Policies, priorities, and investment decisions should be ‘place-based’ and dependent on the needs of particular areas or localities, taking into consideration choices around building upgrades and network infrastructure deployment. The heat decarbonisation challenge will require a long-term strategy; no single measure or party can decarbonise buildings alone. A range of parties need to be obligated and incentivised by different policies in order to transition away from our reliance on natural gas and towards alternative low carbon options.

Implement an enduring policy framework to drive building decarbonisation

Energy Systems Catapult have laid out a proposed framework  in its ‘Six Steps to Zero Carbon Buildings’. The Six Steps aims to create a coherent set of new planning processes, standards, obligations, subsidies and market incentives that can combine to drive action throughout the supply chain and highlights the need to make heat decarbonisation a shared responsibility of all relevant stakeholders, incentivising action across vectors. 

Over the course of this Parliament, Government should consider:

1)      Funding a new wave of place-based programmes – investing strategically in energy improvement, retrofit and skills development could hold the key to building up demand and driving long term market competitiveness for low carbon solutions by region or area. This could involve a mix of public investment, coordinated by local authorities (e.g. from post-Brexit regional ‘prosperity’ funds) as well as private sector partners and contributions from existing funding programmes. This would also align with objectives around stimulating post-COVID19 economic recovery across UK regions.

2)      Rolling out Local Area Energy Planning (LAEP) – by using robust data analysis to create integrated local energy plans, decarbonisation can be driven through coordinated investment in energy infrastructure from a whole systems perspective. LAEP is a critical enabler of decarbonisation and is a method for analysing cost-effective, low carbon solutions for a local area and its energy systems.

3)      Making energy networks invest to reach Net Zero carbon – with Ofgem re-engineering its RIIO processes and guidance, ESC have been advising and supporting the regulator with the future development of the RIIO2 price control framework, with LAEP put forward as a possible model to guide strategic investment for electricity distribution networks (DNOs)[8]

4)      Phasing in carbon performance requirements across all buildings – akin to an MOT required by car owners, minimum standards based on carbon emissions could phased in to address building carbon performance, perhaps introduced at the point of sale, or when a property changes hands. Over time, markets could open up and competition could help tip the balance for property owners in favour of low carbon technologies.

5)      Rewarding low carbon choices through energy billsa new carbon credits scheme could reward consumers to reduce their actual carbon emissions through their energy bills. Working alongside Step 4, suppliers could measure actual usage against a carbon performance benchmark which tightens over time. When a property’s emissions fall below or above that benchmark, the property owner is then given a respective bill reduction or surcharge.

6)      Building markets for new finance products for low carbon solutions – helping people to afford the upfront cost of low carbon solutions will be key to heat decarbonisation. As well as public grants and funding, government could encourage private markets to develop and offer green mortgage-style services to encourage uptake of low carbon products.

Ensuring a fair transition to a low carbon future

Wider priorities including fuel poverty reduction should be considered to ensure that vulnerable customers are neither left behind nor bear the brunt of the cost (including being aware of new types of vulnerability that will emerge with greater digitalisation of the energy system). Our work on Fair Futures explores the opportunities innovation can unlock to address fuel poverty by using insights to better understand the issues faced by vulnerable energy consumers.

Building skills and supply chains

The low carbon heat transition requires the development of a new skillset and the joining up of a fragmented supply chain which is currently not fit for zero carbon buildings. If a property owners’ first port-of-call would likely be a local builder or installer, new curricula, new tools for professionals and a new learning infrastructure is required to upskill the workforce. As such, it is paramount that the correct skills and training are transferred throughout the supply chain as the UK moves towards low-carbon heating. Our ongoing initiative – the Energy Academy – aims to address this skills gap and help train tomorrow’s zero carbon buildings expert.

The upcoming Heat and Building Strategy must consider a wider, whole-systems approach to decarbonisation, with a strong policy framework, encouraging action across the board.

 

  1. Which technologies are the most viable to deliver the decarbonisation of heating, and what would be the most appropriate mix of technologies across the UK?

As mentioned, Government should consider a policy strategy which is broadly technology-neutral, but which could vary across localities. The most appropriate mix of technologies will need to take into consideration local characteristics, including building stock, density, and local energy network configurations. Local Area Energy Planning (LAEP) as developed by Energy Systems Catapult is an approach to analysing cost-effective, low carbon solutions for a local area and its energy systems and is a way to clarify the key collective choices for different localities.

Decarbonising the UK’s 29m homes will rely on deep retrofits for millions, with some mixture of electric heat pumps, hydrogen boilers, district heating, heat storage, advanced controls, solar panels, EV charging, electric storage, alternative heat sources (e.g. infra-red), Carbon Capture Usage and Storage (CCUS) and bioenergy making up part of the technology blend but crucially depending on local characteristics and infrastructure. Undoubtedly, there will need to be an unprecedented shift in technological and behavioural patterns across the economy and innovation must be harnessed to eliminate emissions from new and existing buildings. Innovation will be required not just in new technologies, but in new ways of deploying existing technologies, new business models, new consumer offerings, and crucially, new policy, regulation and market design.[9]

Our Innovating to Net Zero ITNZ) report modelled hundreds of potential pathways to Net Zero, stress-testing various combinations, interactions and trade-offs to economy-wide decarbonisation. The report highlighted the importance of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and bioenergy in the energy mix, and emphasised the strong potential role of district heat networks as a viable, low carbon heating alternative that could be deployed at scale, given local area characteristics.

 

  1. What are the barriers to scaling up low carbon heating technologies? What is needed to overcome these barriers?

Under current policies and market conditions there is both a lack of incentive for consumers and a lack of reward for suppliers for switching to low carbon heating technologies. This is a key barrier which arises partly due to the imbalance in effective carbon pricing. Environmental and other policy levies cause gas prices to be favoured over electricity prices, and as underlined previously, this skews consumer choice in the direction of favouring fossil fuel-reliant technologies.

There is also little investment in learning how to combine technologies to give households great low carbon experiences, instead policies force businesses to focus on components of solutions. As highlighted, there is an overall lack of a long-term, succinct roadmap or framework which could be followed towards Net Zero, action must be considered from a whole-system perspective which incentivises action across vectors and stakeholders.

As suggested in our ITNZ Report, the uptake of unfamiliar low carbon heating technologies such as heat pumps and heat networks will likely require new market propositions which are as good or better for consumers than their current heating systems.[10] Gas boilers are familiar, easy-to-use, and crucially, relatively cheap for many households. Our insights report, Understanding Net Zero: A Consumer Perspective aimed to understand public attitudes to climate change, low carbon technologies and behaviours in heating, diet and transport. It highlighted that only 49% of people identified gas boilers as a contributor to climate change, with those that were aware of their gas boilers’ carbon emissions sharing that making the change to lower carbon alternatives would be both difficult and expensive.[11]

As suggested previously, our evidence review for Scottish government into public awareness and attitudes to low carbon alternatives highlighted that cost and performance were continued barriers to the scaling up of low carbon heating. Designing technologies and services that consumers want will ultimately drive confidence, engagement and desirability, and will be crucial to the low carbon heat transition. Overcoming these barriers at scale will be difficult, but our research suggests innovative offerings, propositions and business models could be a way to approach this. One prototype we developed, focused particularly on fuel poor households is Warmth on Prescription – an innovation trial, aiming to deliver warm homes to vulnerable energy consumers by heating their homes to ‘healthy temperatures’ at no additional cost to them. Our findings indicated that health care practitioners liked the idea, people that had smarter heating controls installed found it much easier to control their heating and overall people felt healthier and more comfortable.[12]

Our work alongside innovative SMEs as part of our incubator programme the Energy Launchpad has proven that achieving regulatory recognition for innovative technologies continues to be a difficult challenge. In order for low carbon technologies to be selected for an architects’ design, products must meet the approved Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP), which is used to assess and support the energy and environmental performance of buildings. Many organisations face regulatory barriers to installing their products and scaling up their pioneering solutions, even though many significantly reduce both costs and carbon emissions. Smart technologies such as occupancy-based controls and AI-centred management systems are not favoured in the current version of SAP, which we suggest should be reviewed.

 

  1. How can the costs of decarbonising heat be distributed fairly across consumers, taxpayers, business and government, taking account of the fuel poor and communities affected by the transition? What is the impact of the existing distribution of environmental levies across electricity, gas and fuel bills on drivers for switching to low carbon heating, and should this distribution be reviewed?

Progressively redress the regressive impact of policy levies

The existing distribution of environmental levies across gas, electricity, and fuel are not only regressive in impact but also tip the balance for consumers in favour of high carbon technologies. There is a strong case to review this and to move away from imposing environmental levies to fund technology subsidies.  Our Accelerating to Net Zero Report emphasises a sector-led approach to carbon policy that addresses sector specific challenges, for example, enabling energy suppliers to create attractive consumer propositions for home energy services and heat decarbonisation. Further, transitional and distributional impacts often have sector-specific characteristics that require sector-specific policy responses[13] (e.g. targeted fuel poverty interventions), as such, the costs of decarbonising heat could be distributed with this in mind.

Within our Zero Carbon Buildings policy work, Step 5 of the ‘Six Steps to Zero Carbon Buildings’ suggests rewarding low carbon choices through energy bills, by gradually making it more attractive to switch to low carbon heating sources as these options move from the niche and into the mainstream. Instead of hiking up the price of gas overnight, policy must work to distribute costs evenly by allowing markets to build up over time. In this way, low carbon options could become more appealing as products as services become available, attractive and affordable.

Target place-based funding progressively to tackle fuel poverty and drive early deployment

Distributing costs of decarbonising heat could be localised, with place-based spending targeted at the specific needs of certain local areas, for example at social housing or lower income groups. The place-based funding for low carbon programmes to drive early deployment of low carbon options and retrofits, suggested in Step 1 of our Six Steps framework, can be targeted progressively on local priorities including tackling pockets of fuel poverty or improving run-down neighbourhoods, within UK government and national guidelines. Such place-based programmes could help to build supply chains in local areas with a combination of public sector investment leveraged with private market contributions to drive the local transition.

Promote use of smart services to meet needs of vulnerable households

As part of our work on Fair Futures, ESC conducted an innovation trial, Fuel poverty in a smart energy world which explored how innovative technologies such as smart heating controls impacted vulnerable energy consumers. Our research found that most people thought it would be useful to understand the cost of their heating and there was a desire to know upfront that they could afford to heat their home in future.[14] One recommendation was that energy system innovators could design and develop smart local energy systems in a way that engaged and enabled fuel poor consumers to buy and use their energy in ways that are important to them (e.g. wellbeing), rather than focusing on minimising cost.

We found that vulnerable households want to use heat in the same ways as other households but found that there can be serious implications if costs were more than expected.[15] For this reason we would encourage smart energy systems to play a part in the decarbonisation of heat journey, encouraging offerings such as smart energy controls. 

 

  1. What incentives and regulatory measures should be employed to encourage and ensure households take up low carbon heat, and how will these need to vary for different household types?

 

Our Six Steps to Zero Carbon Buildings framework proposes a coherent set of policies which use incentives and regulatory measures to encourage different household types to take up low carbon heating technologies. We propose that Steps 4, 5 and 6 work in conjunction, whereby the UK could:

The proposition for Step 4 around phasing in new carbon performance requirements across all buildings could be introduced based on different building categories. One possible timeline is set out in the accompanying detailed slide deck, Towards an Enduring Policy Framework whereby new build and social housing could be incentivised first to take up the new requirement as measures may be easier to introduce, and private homes and harder to treat buildings could be given longer to adjust. This proposed timeline could be one way to manage the social and distributional impact across different housing types.

Certainly, there may be a need for targeted assistance for particular groups  to help them manage the switch to low carbon heating technologies. Low cost and accessible long-term green financing options may help to spread costs and make upfront costs more affordable.

 

  1. What action is required to ensure that households are engaged, informed, supported and protected during the transition to low carbon heat, including measures to minimise disruption in homes and to maintain consumer choice?

Enable innovative new services and offerings to meet households’ varied needs

Our Smart Systems and Heat (SSH) programme was aimed at overcoming the barriers to heat decarbonisation by addressing the technical, regulatory, economic and social barriers that block new low carbon heat products, services and business models getting to market. Part of this challenge was to understand how consumers engage with and understand their energy usage in order to inform innovators on how to address new market arrangement and propositions.

Insights from Phase 1 of this project found that consumers ultimately valued their experience of heat, rather than how it was delivered (i.e. – through a gas boiler, district heat or heat pump). We further explored the role of buying Energy as a Service, which tailors a heat offering based on individual preference (e.g. – a conceptual ‘warm home’) rather than buying kilowatt hours of fuel, which was favoured by many consumers.[16] If consumers could choose to buy the outcomes they wanted, they could drive service providers to design, market and install those outcomes.[17]

Throughout this process consumers wanted to stay engaged and informed, with many citing that they would like energy services providers to simplify the complexity of selecting and installing an upgraded low carbon heating solutions, as long as they could still control their experiences.

Use new technology and digitalisation to enhance convenience and control

Our report, ‘How Can People Get The Heat They Want At Home, Without The Carbon?’ discovered that people found it empowering to understand their heating options and the associated value they were able to derive from them. Trialists who used a zonal Home Energy Management System (HEMS) were fascinated to discover how prices varied with different technologies. Those who were concerned about cost were happy to stay informed on how little different ways to heat a home actually cost. Others who had not considered cost were surprised by how simple it was to save money. However, all enjoyed feeling more in control of how they used heat to get what they wanted.[18]

Phase 2 of the SSH programme continued this work and trialled smart energy services which explored how digital controls could transform consumer experiences for home heating and enabling adaptation of lower carbon technologies. We delivered a trial across the 100 homes in our Living Lab investigating how consumers use heat and tested their interest in buying Heat as a Service (HaaS). 85% of Living Lab households trialling HaaS were open to switching to low carbon heating when it came time to replace their boiler – compared to around a third of the general population – as long as current levels of comfort and cost could be guaranteed,[19] suggesting disruption in homes was less of an issue so long as the desired outcome was delivered.

Energy as a Service business models appear to hold significant promise, as they purport to offer a multitude of benefits. At a granular, individual household level it could help resolve problems such as damp, draft and over or under heating, whilst improving and offering advice on energy efficiency measures, giving confidence that comfort can still be achieved at a fair price from an unfamiliar system. It could also enable policy makers to introduce technology-neutral low carbon targets for heating, whilst giving planners information to draw up energy strategies for local areas.

The Danish government has recently backed a scrappage scheme that replaces boilers with heat pumps and a Heat as a Service (HaaS) package, and Scottish Government have commissioned work to understand the implications of HaaS. We suggest that BEIS could consider a similar approach to understand the benefits of this business model at scale.

 

  1. Where should responsibility lie for the governance, coordination and delivery of low carbon heating? What will these organisations need in order to deliver such responsibilities?

Strengthen local leadership and incentivise a range of actors

Governance, coordination and delivery of low carbon heating would need to be a shared responsibility across central government, local authorities, service providers and the energy regulator.

Whilst coordination could be place-based, with Local Authorities taking a strong leadership role to deliver the right kind of solutions to their localities, overall governance could come from central government who would be responsible for putting together an enduring policy framework as suggested as part of our Six Steps to Zero Carbon Buildings policy work. Service providers could oversee the delivery of innovative services such as Energy as a Service, and such developments would need the role of Ofgem to regulate and manage consumer protection for new service propositions.

The regulator would also be responsible for incentivising action across distribution network operators (DNOs), gas networks and heat networks by managing the price control framework. In response to Ofgem’s open letter consultation on the development of RIIO-ED2, ESC put forth the view that Local Area Energy Planning (LAEP) could play a key role in informing decisions and providing a platform for coordinating actions among stakeholders.[20] Ofgem has expressed interest in the potential of LAEP, recently commissioning methodology guidance on it in response to its proposals to include new measures for local networks to support rising electricity demand.[21] Upgrading local energy networks to enable decarbonisation through LAEP can be achieved if executed well, as evidenced by our pilots in Newcastle, Manchester and Bridgend. LAEP is a critical enabler of heat decarbonisation, helping transform local energy systems in view of national UK Net Zero commitments.

November 2020

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[1] https://es.catapult.org.uk/brochures/decarbonisation-heat/

 

[2] https://es.catapult.org.uk/reports/local-area-energy-planning-the-method/

 

[3] https://es.catapult.org.uk/reports/rethinking-decarbonisation-incentives-future-carbon-policy-for-clean-growth/

 

[4] https://www.gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/consultation-paper/2018/05/energy-efficient-scotland-consultation-making-homes-buildings-warmer-greener-more/documents/00534912-pdf/00534912-pdf/govscot%3Adocument/00534912.pdf

[5] https://www.climatexchange.org.uk/media/4298/attitudes-and-awareness-low-carbon-heating-oct-2020.pdf

[6] https://data.es.catapult.org.uk/dataset/e7dyx/how-to-increase-consumer-confidence-in-gas-boiler-alternatives

[7] https://www.connectingcities.eu/the-netherlands-in-transition-the-planning-of-low-carbon-sustainable-and-liveable-cities-in-the-utrecht-region/

 

[8] https://es.catapult.org.uk/reports/local-area-energy-planning-the-method/

 

[9] https://es.catapult.org.uk/reports/innovating-to-net-zero

[10] https://es.catapult.org.uk/reports/innovating-to-net-zero

 

[11] https://es.catapult.org.uk/reports/net-zero-a-consumer-perspective

 

[12] http://www.peoplelab.energy/2020/07/21/warmth-on-prescription/

 

[13] https://es.catapult.org.uk/reports/accelerating-to-net-zero-a-sector-led-approach-to-an-economy-wide-carbon-policy-framework/

 

[14] https://es.catapult.org.uk/reports/fuel-poverty-in-a-smart-energy-world/

[15] https://es.catapult.org.uk/reports/fuel-poverty-in-a-smart-energy-world/

 

[16] https://es.catapult.org.uk/impact/projects/smart-systems-and-heat/smart-systems-and-heat-phase-1/

 

[17] https://www.eti.co.uk/insights/how-can-people-get-the-heat-they-want-without-the-carbon

 

[18] https://www.eti.co.uk/insights/how-can-people-get-the-heat-they-want-without-the-carbon

[19] https://es.catapult.org.uk/reports/smart-energy-services-for-low-carbon-heat/

 

[20] https://es.catapult.org.uk/consultations/open-letter-consultation-on-approach-to-setting-the-next-electricity-distribution-price-control-riio-ed2/

[21] https://es.catapult.org.uk/reports/local-area-energy-planning-the-method/