Written evidence from Warwick Manufacturing Group (WMG) (ELV0124)


Lords ECCC EV Consultation


WMG (Warwick Manufacturing Group), University of Warwick


About WMG

WMG is an academic department at the University of Warwick and an international role model for successful collaboration between academia and the public and private sectors, driving innovation in applied science, technology, and engineering.


As one of the largest academic departments at the University of Warwick and the lead centre for the High Value Manufacturing Catapult strategic objectives of Vehicle Electrification and Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV); WMG is a leading UK multidisciplinary group, making a real impact on society through both collaborative R&D and world-class education.



Government approaches


1. What are the main obstacles to the achievement of the Government’s 2030 and 2035 phase-out dates? Are the phase-out dates realistic and achievable? If not, what steps should the Government take to make the phase-out dates achievable?


NOTE: On 20th September, the Government announced that it would delay the ban on sales of ICE engines to 2035. The below response has been revised to reflect this announcement.


First, we need to understand what we mean by achievable.


In technical terms by 2035 battery technology will be good enough to enable electrification of all the current UK produced electrified light duty vehicles. However, these vehicles will have different attributes to existing ICE products and therefore there will still be consumers who feel it does not meet their requirements.


Under the new Government policy, the 2035 deadline for all vehicles to be ZEV remains, but the removal of the interim requirement at 2030 of all vehicles to have a substantial ZEV capacity (i.e., be hybrids of some form) has been removed. The date at which all new vehicles must be ZEV was and remains 2035.


From an OEM perspective the shift to a 2035 only deadline will make relatively little difference to OEMs plans, as firms are already well underway with product development for vehicles planned for 2030, we are already at 17% BEV market penetration, and OEM medium term investment plans are primarily focussed now on the 2035 deadline.


However, there may be an impact on the investment decisions of charging firms, as given the requirement for all vehicles to have a charger will no longer be imposed by regulation in 2030, this may weaken their case for investment.


However, in period to 2035, the main regulatory tool of government will now be the Zero Emissions Mandate (ZEV). The government proposed this mandate in early 2023 and is currently analysing responses to that consultation. As proposed in the consultation, the ZEV mandate would require manufacturers to sell increasing percentages of zero emission vehicles. The share of ZEVs by manufacturer would increase from 22% of new car sales and 10% of new vans in 2024 to 80% for cars and 70% for vans in 2030, and 100% for both by 2035.


It is arguable that given the volumes of ZEV sales required from 2024-30 to achieve the ZEV mandate, this will have a greater impact on manufacturer behaviour than the removal of the hybrid ban between 2030-2035.


The Government has indicated that the mandate is still intended to be introduced, although the structure of the proposed mandate is still to be announced as of the date of this submission. The earliest possible clarity on the structure of the ZV mandate would be helpful to manufacturers.


Another key issue which will impact consumer demand for EVs, and manufacturers plans are the Rules of Origin (ROO) provisions of the UK-EU Trade and Co-operation Agreement. This provides that if a Vehicle is not at least 45% UK/European in Origin from Jan 2024, it will face a 10% tariff.


The key deadline however will be the 2027 date, at which point the battery pack, cell and cathode active material will near certainly be required to come from the UK or Europe as these elements of an EV are such a significant share of vehicle value. In the 2024-27 period, while both the UK and EU are currently ramping up Battery and the Cathode Active Material (CAM) production, the current ROO implantation plan could have the unintended consequence of increasing the price-gap between an EV and an ICE vehicle while UK and EU battery and CAM production is gradually increasing to meet demand.


The Government have Indicated that they are seeking to reach agreement with the EU on revising these rules, but no agreement has yet been reached. While the overall goal of ROO regulations is clear, greater flexibility in the short-term implementation of the policy, while retaining the 2027 goals will likely be beneficial to both UK and EU markets.




2. Do the 2030 and 2035 phase-out dates serve their purpose to incentivise the development of an EV market in the UK? To what extent are car makers focusing on one date or the other? What are the impacts of the deadlines on the ability of the UK supply chain to benefit and how could the Government seek to further support the development of the UK EV industry? Would the introduction of a plan with key dates and timescales support the development of the EV industry in the UK?


The 2035 date sets a firm limit on the phase-out of all non-ZEV sales, which gives manufacturers certainty, and will drive the development of product manufacturing, and will support the development of a strong supply of eVs.


To support this, there needs to be a clear innovation plan linked to a taxation policy to enable manufacturers to plan their investments and consumes to plan the transition towards eVs. 


However, neither the phase out date for ICE nor the ZEV mandate will address the demand side of the market.


The main areas of consumer concern are likely to be cost, range and speed of recharging. Government can address this by supporting research to reduce battery costs and to maximise vehicle efficiency either through incentives or technical research.


In addition, the delivery of a complete easy access and reliable charging network aligned to consumer needs to be centrally led and rolled out ahead of time to ensure success.


From an environmental perspective when you consider embedded carbon in existing ICE vehicles you ideally want to swap out high mileage users in old ICE vehicles to BEV first, as converting low mileage users in nearly new ICE vehicles makes little environmental sense in lifecycle emissions terms.


At the same time, these consumers may prove the most challenging to convert, due to perceived needs for transport and cost of new vehicles.


Therefore, converting consumers is likely to involve developing a sophisticated fiscal punitive or incentive scheme aligned to real net zero benefits that can be easily communicated to the public. This needs to be well thought out a long time in advance to avoid the type of negative reaction seen with the ULEZ transition.


This will probably need to be done in conjunction with an education programme explaining why electrified vehicles are both able to meet needs of consumers and how to help the transition however it will not give everyone everything they have today but that is the price of net zero.



3. What specific national policies, regulations or initiatives have been successful, or have hindered, EV adoption to date? Are these policies or initiatives fit for purpose?


The proposed phase out dates and the prospect of ZEV mandate has driven vehicle manufacturers to invest in electrified platforms however it has not done much to take the volume consumers along. The strong UK research and innovation base has supported the development of battery technology and supported manufacturer transition, and support for charging infrastructure has been beneficial in driving EV adoption.


Consumers have shown that they respond strongly to fiscal policy, for example when previous changes to company car taxation drove an overnight shift towards plug-in hybrids and current salary sacrifice EV schemes show similar trends, with strong EV growth in the UK Fleet market.


However, these types of schemes are biased towards those able to access salary sacrifice and company car schemes, which benefit high-rate taxpayers more than basic rate taxpayers and are unlikely to enable affordable ZEV personal transportation among those at the lower end of the income distribution. There is therefore potential to offer greater targeted support in this area, for example through calls for VAT reduction, scrappage schemes for old ICE vehicles, and targeted support to lower earners.



4. Given that the Government should apply a behavioural lens to policy—which involves people making changes to their everyday lives, such as what they purchase and use—is there a role for clearer communication of the case for EVs from the Government? If so, who should take the lead on delivering that?


Yes, there is a definite need for clearer communication of the case for EVs on a national basis.


However, the question of who should take the lead is complex given the amount of misinformation and distorted information available to consumers and the current polarisation of opinions that exists as a result.


To convince, consumers, information should ideally be available from a body perceived to be an honest broker or arbiter which leads the communication / debate. This may be tricky to be government led but would need to be funded or regulated by government or independent body to avoid the perception of partiality by manufacturers.



5. What is your view on the accuracy of the information in the public domain relating to EVs and their usage?


There is a high level of misinformation in the public domain on issues ranging from, cost, environmental impact, performance, range, charging and safety.


This confusion is driven by conflicting viewpoints, challenges in making fair comparisons, and a lack of a clear ‘arbiter’ for market claims for both ICE and BEV products. There are a lot of ‘experts’ quoted in the press however unbiased information often seems difficult for consumers to access.



6. What are the overall environmental benefits that would result from achieving the 2030 and 2035 targets?


When looking at the overall carbon reduction benefits of the 2030 and 2035 targets, this can only be accurately assessed when linked to the electricity grid carbon intensity used to manufacture the EV and to charge the EV in use.


For example, research from the US Argonne National Laboratory the relative lifecycle emissions showed that the lifetime Carbon Emissions of an EV in Norway is lower than in the US, as the electricity grid is markedly less carbon intensive in Norway[1].


The Sixth Carbon budget of the Climate Change committee found that switching a single megawatt hour (MWh) of electricity generation to zero carbon would save over 0.7 tCO2e in powering an EV[2].


It therefore follows that as the UK Electricity generation network decarbonises, the carbon cost of EV use will fall. Equally, improvements in battery performance and Energy density[3], a greater use of recycled and lower carbon impact chemistries such Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP)[4] have the potential to improve the overall impact of EV Battery production by reducing the carbon cost of manufacture.


However, even with current assumptions on the carbon cost of electricity generation and current BEV performance, both UK and European studies indicate a significant reduction in carbon emissions from BEV over comparable ICE vehicles.


The 2018 Transport Energy Model produced by the Government stated that “Electrification delivers a large reduction in energy consumption. Using a 2017 electricity grid emissions factor, a battery electric car is estimated to emit 73 gCO2e/km (a reduction of 66% relative to standard petrol). Emissions are expected to fall to near zero over the period to 2050 as the electricity grid decarbonises in line with Government projections”[5]


Similarly, research conducted for the European Parliament in 2023[6] found that “a typical current BEV car already saves over ~60% kgCO2eq compared to an equivalent conventional gasoline car in average EU conditions.” and that “by 2030, average BEV GHG impacts in the EU27 could be 78% lower than those of an equivalent conventional gasoline car”.


In terms of Air Quality, a 2020 DEFRA study found that there “will be unambiguous benefits for air quality arising from the elimination of exhaust NOx, with significant reductions in ambient NO2 concentrations likely to be experienced at the roadside and in enclosed stations” and that “the removal of internal combustion engine (ICE) passenger vehicles will fully eliminate remaining tailpipe PM emissions and any ammonia from exhaust gas after-treatments such as Selective Catalytic Reduction. Tailpipe emissions of VOCs would also be eliminated along with the evaporative and fugitive losses associated with the refuelling infrastructure.”[7]


7. What are the likely costs that will be faced by consumers as a result of the Government’s phase-out dates for non-zero emissions vehicles? Are there policies or initiatives that the Government could use to specifically target barriers arising from unpredictable costs to the consumer, for example significant fluctuations in the cost of electricity, changes to road taxes, or the introduction of low emission zones?


The main costs of the transition for consumers will be the vehicle, domestic charging provision and charging costs. Given that EVs are currently more expensive than similar ICE models, and that lower cost EVs are typically lower range vehicles with smaller batteries, the most challenging sector will be those consumers who are high mileage drivers looking for a lower cost vehicle.


This is a complex issue, and it will be challenging to direct support to those really in need. Those with higher incomes or assets will initially have access to cheaper ZEV solutions due to the ability to develop their own lower cost home charging networks (for example through installation of renewable energy sources domestically).


One area the government could focus on to address areas of need would be the development of a strong public charging infrastructure, including on-street and workplace charging, with clear regulation of costs at a level comparable to home charging.


For example, one area which will impact consumer willingness to adopt EVs will be charging availability on the strategic road network.


A recent study from the Climate Change Committee found that ensuring there is sufficient capacity to charge at times of peak demand would result “in a carbon saving of 1.1million kg in 2035 and 2million kg in 2050 compared to a Do-Nothing scenario.”[8] However, ensuring this level of charger availability would have a significant capital cost, estimated at £146.6m by 2050.




EV Market and Acquiring an EV



10. How is the Government helping to ensure that EVs are affordable and accessible for consumers, and are these approaches fit for purpose?


In terms of affordability, following the closure of the plug-in grant scheme in June 2022, the government is focussing support directly to consumers primarily through Benefits in Kind available through the company car and salary sacrifice schemes. These offer significant tax benefits to users, and rates have been fixed through to 2027/28.


The route is particularly attractive to Higher and Additional Rate Taxpayers, while those close to minimum wage are unlikely to benefit, as the scheme is not permitted to allow income to fall below minimum wage. Indeed, some finance providers recommend that no-one with an annual income below £27,000 considers this route[9].


To support EV uptake the government could therefore consider offering greater incentives to support the shift to EVs among lower income consumers, for example through VAT reductions, or VAT reductions on the cost of public charging, which would also support those who have no access to off-street home charging.



11. Do you think the range of EVs on offer in the UK is sufficient to meet market needs? Which segments are under-served and why? Why is the UK market not seeing low-cost EVs, particularly in comparison to China?


The current range of EVs on offer in the UK are primarily in the premium market segment. As of this submission, the cheapest two-seater car is the Smart EQ Fortwo, with acclaimed range of 81 miles, which retails at c£22k, while the lowest cost four door vehicles are the  MGEV4, which retails at c£26k and has a claimed range of 218 miles, or the Nissan Leaf, which also retails at c26k with a claimed range of 168 miles There are several vehicles available at the £30k level.  (The Citroen AMI, which retails at c£8k is technically a Quadricycle).


Depending on how you view the market, it can be argued that the most underserved segments are the value city and family car, as the price-gap for the equivalent vehicle is substantial.


Over the next two-three years, we do expect to see significant entries to the UK market, including from Dacia, BYD, Chery (Omoda), Lynk and Co, Ora, and Nio.



12. What is the future role of L-segment and personal light electric vehicles, and how will

that impact car ownership and usage? What is inhibiting their uptake?


Fundamentally to get towards net-zero there needs to be a holistic mobility solution linked to a strategy to maximise efficiency of transportation and minimise energy consumption.


This also must link to a UK energy strategy across generation and consumption. When looked through this lens it then we require a shift in transportation model, potentially with a shift away from private ownership of personal transport, as this represents a significant production cost in carbon terms, with many vehicles idle for much of the time, however this will be challenge to sell to the public unless it is easy to use even at peak demand moments and at a lower cost than their existing mobility solutions.


L-segment and light electric vehicles have the potential to help address this gap, by offering consumers a mobility option which is low financial cost, has a low carbon cost in both production and use, and is available at peak time, or accessible for personal ownership.


However, to achieve this, there needs to be significant advance in both the regulation and design of these vehicles. Some of the reforms needed in this area have been identified in the “Micromobility, a UK roadmap”[10] report from WMG and the Faraday Institution’s Insight “The Micromobility revolution gathers momentum”[11]



13. What is your assessment of the current second-hand EV market? How is the second-hand EV market projected to develop between now and the phase out dates?


The second-hand market will be driven by the confidence of the consumer in the battery state of health and the ability of the aftermarket to fix EV’s at an affordable price.


To support the growth of the used market, more research needs to be done on defining and managing the battery state of health in order to offer increased transparency for the consumer of the state of health of the EV battery. For example, sensors within battery cell could transmit information on battery status, verifying the health of the battery and signposting potential for reuse, and by identifying the most appropriate recycling and re-use process for the battery.


To make that judgement, you need a tool to quickly assess the condition of a battery.

At the moment, this takes about 8 hours as it involves charging and discharging the battery. WMG has been working on projects to increase the diagnosis speed of battery health[12] through combining electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests and machine learning[13],


The results demonstrate that the model can predict the State of Health of Li-ion cells with an error about 1.1% and is reasonably robust to the various testing conditions of the battery. This has multiple potential benefits, such as assessing the length of second life batteries, and measuring the wear and tear on electric vehicles to give consumers in the used market accurate understanding of battery health.



14. What is the relationship between EV leasing and the second-hand market and how do they interrelate?


Please see response to Q13 above.



16. What is the value and role of alternative transport models such as car clubs and micro mobility vehicles in the Government achieving the 2030 phase out date, and how should the Government consider their roles and opportunities for use in transport decarbonisation?


Most trips in the UK are relatively short, with 24% of trips being under 1 mile, and 71% under 5 miles in 2022, however 60% of all car trips are under 5 miles[14]. One recent US research paper suggested that in an urban environment, up to 18% of short car trips could be replaced by micromobility[15]. Swedish researchers have also found that switching from car to e-bike reduced CO2 emissions by 8.2 kg/week, on average[16].


As well as traditional human powered micromobility solutions, such as cargo-bikes, “Powered Micromobility Vehicles” (those under ~230kgs unladen weight[17] ) PMV offer a huge opportunity to decarbonise transport, reduce congestion, improve air quality, and reduce car-dependence. The global market for these vehicles is growing exponentially[18] with the Global Micromobility market has been valued at $44billion as of 2020[19], and projected to reach over $200 billion by 2030, so ensuring a strong UK Micromobility sector also has the potential to support UK economic growth.


This means that, similar to the response in Q12 above on L-segment and Light Electric vehicles, Micromobility vehicles offer a significant opportunity to reduce the UKs reliance on cars and vans for last mile freight and short personal travel, particularly in the urban environment, thereby reducing total emissions, as these vehicles are less carbon intensive to produce and run. For example, the carbon cost of the charge to move an eScooter emits ~5% of the carbon that even an electric car does for the same trip, and it produces a tiny fraction of the carbon in manufacturing. Micromobility vehicles can also provide a valuable role in reducing congestion.


Powered Micromobility vehicles also offer the potential for greater inclusivity, with users who have previously been unable to benefit from micromobility vehicles (usually for physical reasons) able to access mobility without car reliance.


However, supporting the growth of micromobility in the UK will require regulation to both ensure that vehicles are safe, appropriately licensed, and accessible. There is a danger that without such regulation unlicensed, unregulated vehicles will make their way onto UK roads, and that the poor safety and quality of these vehicles will lead to market failure as consumers and wider society react against this mode of transport. Proper regulation of the sector will also support the growth of a strong UK micromobility industry able to design, test, manufacture, and retail in the UK.


In ‘Micromobility, a UK roadmap’[20], WMG proposed creating 3 new categories of PMV – e-scooters, light electric cargo vehicles and electric light mopeds (the latter would sit below the existing L-category). Each would have appropriate maximum speed and power, weight limit, type approval, licensing, insurance, and safety standards.


To deliver this type of regulated market, legislation will be required. The Government initially announced plans to develop a micromobility regulation system in the Future of Transport bill, announced in the debates on Queen’s speech 2022[21]. However, this bill has not yet been submitted to parliament. It is critical for the development of the sector that this commitment be followed up with some urgency.




Experience of using an EV


18. What are the main challenges that UK consumers face in their use of EVs?


The main challenges facing UK consumers are cost of purchase/lease, running costs, range anxiety and access to reliable, fast charging, whether at home, (particularly those without dedicated parking), at work or on the strategic network.


These factors affect different consumers in different ways. As the average price of a new electric vehicle is 39% more expensive than a petrol or diesel equivalent (ignoring Benefit in Kind) the cost of transition is more burdensome for lower income consumers.


Equally, those in flats, terraced housing without dedicated parking will be more concerned by public charging options, while those with off-street parking will be concerned by the availability and cost of domestic charge point installation.


Similarly, while all users will be concerned by access to servicing and repair, those concerns will potentially be greater for those in rural communities. While those who have long daily journeys or who expect to undertake cross-country travel on a regular basis will be more likely to be concerned by range limitations.



19. What are the main benefits that UK consumers could realise from using an EV?


The primary direct benefits for consumers currently are the lower running costs of charging, access to ULEZ zones and lower taxation rates.  The relative mechanical simplicity of EVs also means that are generally lower cost to maintain and service than ICE vehicles, though this is impacted by the availability of qualified service staff as discussed in Q20 below.


When we bring the lower service and running costs together with the likely future cost of EVs gradually reaching price parity with ICE vehicles, there is also a potential for lifetime cost savings to consumers. As the Sixth Carbon Budget says,By 2025 we estimate that a new battery-electric car will be cost-saving compared with a petrol or diesel car over the lifetime of the vehicle, even when including costs of developing charging infrastructure and upgrading power networks to deal with increased demand for electricity and taking account of the need to replace exchequer revenue from fuel duty.”[22]


Depending on consumer preference, the performance, handling, and extended range of vehicles are also regarded as attractive benefits by consumers.


On a social level, EVs offer significantly lower atmospheric pollution rates and lower noise levels, alongside the overall carbon emissions reductions discussed above.


20. How prepared are car dealerships, service networks, repairs and maintenance organisations, breakdown services and aftermarket suppliers to meet the growing EV uptake?


One of the key challenges facing the service and related sectors is ensuring there are sufficiently trained workers to support the transition to EVs. The Faraday Institution has identified[23] that 188,000 mechanics working in franchise and independent repair firms will require training at level 2-4, while the Institute for the Motor Industry (IMI) judges that by 2030, 107,000 Techsafe qualified technicians will be required, rising to 139,000 by 2032[24]. Currently, 42,400 have achieved Techsafe qualification.


However, IMI note that “Take-up of EV qualifications in 2023 quarter one is 10% lower than the previous year, indicating a potential slowdown in the adoption of these qualifications. Additionally… IMI projections for the second quarter of 2023 suggest an even more substantial decline of 31% in certifications.


Nor is the service and breakdown sector the only sector with key skills needs around EVs. For example, significant numbers of Emergency services personnel will require the correct skills to deal with EVs. With Faraday estimating that 44,000 firefighters, 26,000 paramedics and 88,000 police will require training to appropriately deal with EVs, for example after accidents.


For some of this training will be at a relatively low level, for example, transportation, how to discharge the battery and understanding voltage risks associated with an EV at the scene of an accident. However, for others, more in depth skills are required, including understanding fire, explosion and high-voltage risks, release of toxic gases, hazard material leakage, and dealing with pressurised systems.


Ensuring that this critical workforce is appropriately skilled will be a critical element for the ZEV Transition. To support this, WMG and partners at the High Value Manufacturing Catapult, working with FE colleges, Universities, Industry bodies and employers, have developed the National Electrification Skills Framework.[25] This offers an integrated approach that will enable the sharing of learning needs and courses across different delivery models (workplace, college, HE) as well as enabling individuals to earn transferrable credit for their learning and gain recognition of their skills and industrial credentials as part of a clear career progression pathway.


Earlier this month, the Faraday Battery Challenge supported the development of this Framework with a grant to Coventry University and partners Enginuity, WMG and the UK Battery Industrialisation Centre (UKBIC) to deliver the National Electrifications Skills Forum and Framework (NESFF).[26]



End of life disposal of EVs


26. What options are there for consumers for end-of-life management of batteries and EVs, and what impact does this have on consumer attitudes towards buying an EV?



If we consider end-of-life for an EV, there are several potential scenarios. A vehicle could have its battery pack replaced, and the pack could be recycled or given a second life. Alternatively, the entire vehicle could reach end of life, whether through accident or aging, and the battery pack needs to be dealt with as part of this process.


Some of the issues for end of life are similar to those discussed in Q13 above. For example, being able to rapidly diagnose battery health would be of benefit to both the second-hand market and end-of-life management sector, both by ensuring batteries go to a suitable destination and by potentially extending vehicle life and usefulness.


Currently, when an EV reaches end of life, the battery will be assessed for health, and a decision will be made on whether it can serve a second-life purpose or will need to be recycled.


Another key element in end-of-life is increasing the value of the material that can be recovered from a battery pack. WMG has been researching methods to increase the Lithium recovery in recycling with industry partners[27], with initial rates of recovery of 93% at a purity of over 99%. We have applied for a patent for this process.




National and regional issues


29. What are the challenges or concerns around grid capacity in relation to significantly increased EV adoption?


The provision of extra grid capacity needs to be linked to both a national energy strategy and the development of vehicle to grid charging.


The development of a national energy strategy, as confirmed by the Government, is a welcome step in assuring that grid connection and distribution will respond to the changing nature of grid demand.


One route to support Grid Capacity would be the adoption of vehicle to grid (V2G) charging, where EVs connected to chargers can act as suppliers of energy to the grid as well as receivers of energy,


In theory there should be enough EVs in the market to support a virtual distributed grids to improve grid stability and to provide better network balancing. However, one of the concerns with this approach is that it would increase battery aging. WMG research has also indicated that utilising V2G together with smart charging also has the potential to limit the impact of battery aging[28]. However, it will need more further research, clear standard, and centralised co-ordination rather than a laissez faire approach to deliver this technology at scale.




32. What are the issues facing rural residents, urban residents, and sub-urban residents and how do they differ?


The issues facing residents of different areas are different, although they rely on many of the factors outlined in previous answers. For example, a rural higher-rate taxpayer with their own off-street parking and regular high mileage travel will likely be primarily concerned by the availability of charging points on the strategic road network and the availability of servicing and repair services, while a rural basic-rate taxpayer, in a flat without dedicated parking, will also face challenges over home charging and purchase cost.


Similarly, for urban consumers with relatively low daily mileage, concerns may be around the availability of lower-cost EVs with ranges suitable for city driving, smaller vehicles, and greater provision of on-street charging, depending on residence.


It is therefore important to address these issues within an overall strategy. Some elements of these issues (for example, the availability of lower cost EVs and longer/Shorter range EVs) are best left to the market to address, while others, such as skills provision, charging provision of on street and strategic road network charging will require government intervention, at local and/or national level.








[1] https://www.reuters.com/business/autos-transportation/when-do-electric-vehicles-become-cleaner-than-gasoline-cars-2021-06-29/

[2] Climate Change Committee, Sixth Carbon Budget – Electricity Generation P11 fig M5.4 https://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Sector-summary-Electricity-generation.pdf

[3] https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/EV-life-cycle-GHG_ICCT-Briefing_09022018_vF.pdf p10

[4] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0959652622029286

[5] Transport Energy Model, Department for Transport, 2018 p13, para2.7 https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/739462/transport-energy-model.pdf

[6]  “Environmental challenges through the life cycle of battery electric vehicles” European Parliament 2023 p12 https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2023/733112/IPOL_STU(2023)733112_EN.pdf

[7] Impacts of Net Zero pathways on future air quality in the UK, DEFRA, 2020 Available at https://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/assets/documents/reports/cat09/2006240802_Impacts_of_Net_Zero_pathways_on_future_air_quality_in_the_UK.pdf

[8] Peak EV Charging Demand on the Strategic Road Network, Climate Change Committee September 2023 p57

[9] For example, see https://www.loveelectric.cars/blog/electric-car-salary-sacrifice-a-guide-to-tax-bracket-savingswe strongly recommend drivers have a minimum annual salary of £27,000

[10] Micromobility, a UK roadmap, WMG, University of Warwick, 2021 https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/wmg/business/transportelec/micro_mobility_roadmap.pdf

[11] The Micromobility Revolution Gathers Momentum, Faraday Institution, Feb 2023 https://www.faraday.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/Faraday_Insights_16_FINAL.pdf

[12] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37383794/

[13] Faraji-Niri, Mona, Rashid, Muhammed, Sansom, Jonathan, Sheikh, Muhammed, Widanage, Dhammika and Marco, James (2023) Accelerated state of health estimation of second life lithium-ion batteries via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests and machine learning techniques. Journal of Energy Storage, 58. 106295. doi:10.1016/j.est.2022.106295 ISSN 2352-152X.

[14] https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/national-travel-survey-2022/national-travel-survey-2022-mode-share-journey-lengths-and-trends-in-public-transport-use

[15] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1361920922000050

[16] L. Winslott Hiselius, Å. Svensson E-bike use in Sweden – CO2 effects due to modal change and municipal promotion strategies J. Cleaner Prod., 141 (2017), pp. 818-824, 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.09.141

[17] SAE definition J3194

[18] https://assets.ey.com/content/dam/ey-sites/ey-com/en_gl/topics/automotive-and-transportation/automotive-transportation-pdfs/ey-micromobility-moving-cities-into-a-sustainable-future.pdf

[19] https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/micro-mobility-market-A11372

[20] https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/wmg/business/transportelec/micro_mobility_roadmap.pdf

[21] https://www.pacts.org.uk/the-safety-of-e-scooters-pacts-briefing-following-the-queens-speech-2022/

[22] The Climate Change Committee, The Sixth Carbon Budget, 2020, P106-7 https://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/The-Sixth-Carbon-Budget-The-UKs-path-to-Net-Zero.pdf

[23] https://www.faraday.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Faraday_Insights_4_Update_May2021.pdf

[24] https://tide.theimi.org.uk/sites/default/files/2023-06/EV%20Technicians%20forecast%20report%20June%202023%20Final.pdf

[25] https://hvm.catapult.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/National-Electrification-Skills-Forum-Brochure-FINAL.pdf

[26] https://www.ukri.org/news/uk-battery-industry-boosted-by-initiatives-worth-3-2-million/

[27] Zhiming Yan, Anwar Sattar, Zushu Li, “Priority Lithium recovery from spent Li-ion batteries via carbothermal reduction with water leaching: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 192,2023,106937, ISSN 0921-3449, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2023.106937

[28] “simulation results show that the developed smart charge schemes can mitigate the battery ageing up to 5%” http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/159742