Written evidence from Zapmap (ELV0102) 

Submission to: Lords Environment and Climate Change Committee

Organisation: Zapmap Ltd

About Zapmap:

As a pioneer in the early days of electric cars, Zapmap was founded in 2014 with a mission.

to make EV charging simple, wherever you go. Available on iOS/Android and desktop,

the Zapmap app helps EV drivers search for available charge points, plan longer journeys, pay for

charging, and share updates with other drivers.

Zapmap currently has around 650,000 registered users and over 95% of the UK’s public

points on its network, more than 70% of which show live availability data.

In addition to the app, Zapmap tracks the EV charging market and provides data and insights to organisations to help them on their electrification journey.

Submitted by: Melanie Shufflebotham, Co-founder and COO

Date: 15th September 2023




1. What are the main obstacles to the achievement of the Government’s 2030 and 2035 phase-out dates? Are the phase-out dates realistic and achievable? If not, what steps should the Government take to make the phase-out dates achievable?

Yes achievable, although some challenges:


Given that the 2030 PHEV/2035 BEV targets may need an additional 25%/20% stretch, it is likely that the market will need further and sustained incentives/disincentives to meet 100% targets. However, these may not be required as once the market passes the 50% mark then the private sector is likely to accelerate its own investment in PHEV/BEV at the expense of ICE production.


What steps from the government?



2. Do the 2030 and 2035 phase-out dates serve their purpose to incentivise the development of an EV market in the UK? To what extent are car makers focusing on one date or the other? What are the impacts of the deadlines on the ability of the UK supply chain to benefit and how could the Government seek to further support the development of the UK EV industry? Would the introduction of a plan with key dates and timescales support the development of the EV industry in the UK?


Yes, the 2030/2035 targets together with the ZEV mandates (see below) due to be introduced in 2024 are sufficient to incentivise the UK EV market from the supply side. However, these will need to closely be aligned with the demand-pull measures for consumers (see below). OEMs have a number of positional strategies on meeting these 2030/2035 targets with specific strategic groups emerging:

The relative commitment of the OEMs depends on a number of factors including existing ICE investments, tech strategy (ICE, mild-hybrid, full-hybrid, PHEV, BEV, hydrogen), global markets serviced (US, EU, Asia, etc), location of parent company (USA, EU, South Korea, Japan, China).

A key consideration for OEMs committed to BEV powertrains are the locations of Gigafactories to supply sufficient batteries to satisfy demand. In the UK, we currently only have secured two production facilities (at Sunderland and Coventry) with a max capacity of 70 GWh capacity which will support 1.4 million units annually. With respect to its BEV targets, without further investment in battery product facilities, the UK will be heavily dependent on car imports to meet its 2035 EV target. Ref: https://cicenergigune.com/en/blog/world-map-gigafactories 

As already mentioned, ZEV mandates are planned for introduction in 2024. Under the plan, from 1 January 2024, ZEV targets will require an increasing percentage of a manufacturer’s annual new car and van sales in the UK to be zero emission until reaching 100% in 2035. It is our contention that these sales mandate is an integral part of meeting the 2030 and 2035 targets phasing out ICE vehicles and supporting the rapid adoption of EVs.

Moreover, it should be noted that “Most respondents [of the ZEV Mandate consultation] … suggested that the car ZEV uptake trajectory should be more ambitious than the…trajectory proposed. A substantial portion of these respondents favoured following the Climate Change Committee’s (CCC) Balanced Net Zero Pathway trajectory.” Ref: https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/policy-design-features-for-the-car-and-van-zero-emission-vehicle-zev-mandate/outcome/government-response-and-outcome-to-technical-consultation-on-zero-emission-vehicle-mandate-policy-design#part-a-zev-uptake-trajectories--stakeholder-views-and-government-response 


3. What specific national policies, regulations or initiatives have been successful, or have hindered, EV adoption to date? Are these policies or initiatives fit for purpose?


Large number of financial incentives for EVs and ULCVs have been in place since 2010:

The above incentives have significantly supported the update of ULEVs (including PHEVs and BEVs) since 2010. Of the ones listed above there is evidence that the most effective schemes have been the purchase grants together with the company car tax benefits, the latter continuing to provide a significant driver of BEV sales in the UK. However, with the loss of the PICG in 2022, the CCT (and salary sacrifice) is now the key measure which is incentivising BEVs in the UK.

On the charging front the EVHCS scheme was very successful for consumers (if challenging from an admin point of view for installers). However, going forward, given the benefits of having a home charger, government support should be focused on helping local authorities to provide local charging for those who do not have off-street parking. It is hoped that the LEVI scheme will provide sufficient incentives and support for this.

Given the amount of misinformation in the market, there is also a case for reviving the old GoUltraLow website to provide independent factual information on EVs and charging.


4. Given that the Government should apply a behavioural lens to policy—which involves people making changes to their everyday lives, such as what they purchase and use—is there a role for clearer communication of the case for EVs from the Government? If so, who should take the lead on delivering that?


5. What is your view on the accuracy of the information in the public domain relating to EVs and their usage?






6. What are the overall environmental benefits that would result from achieving the 2030 and 2035 targets?


7. What are the likely costs that will be faced by consumers as a result of the Government’s phase-out dates for non-zero emissions vehicles? Are there policies or initiatives that the Government could use to specifically target barriers arising from unpredictable costs to the consumer, for example significant fluctuations in the cost of electricity, changes to road taxes, or the introduction of low emission zones?



21. How does the charging infrastructure for EVs need to develop to meet the 2030 target? Does the UK need to adopt a single charging standard (e.g., the Combined Charging System (CCS)) or is there room in the market for multiple charger types?




Please note that these bandings are going to be changed by OZEV in the near future, but this is the way it is currently reported.


The relative size and growth rates of chargers by these power ratings can be seen below:



Aug 22

Dec 22

Aug 23

Y/Y growth
















Ultra Rapid











In addition to the above charging devices there are an estimated 680,000 chargers which are installed at peoples houses (80% of the 850k BEVs on the road) and a further unknown number at workplaces.


The charge devices have different power ratings, different charge times and support different use cases. The UK should not be chasing a number but rather making sure there are the right chargers for the right use case in the right place. There needs to be development on a number of fronts:


  1. En-route charging - this is mainly to support EV drivers on longer journeys, the chargers need to be high powered and as fast as possible. Often, they are found in “charging hubs” of 6 or more devices, often close to the strategic road network. This area as you can see in the numbers above is growing well and mainly by the private sector. There is a large number of rapid / ultra rapid chargers in the pipeline, and this needs to continue to rollout at pace to support the needs of the growing EV community, key constraint is issues with planning, grid connections and lack of standardisation of process across organisations. In some areas (such as mid Wales), there may be market failure and needs some extra support by the government to ensure that there is sufficient provision.


  1. Local charging - this is critical to support those who do not have off-street parking – an estimated 20% of current EV drivers, and up to 40% of households. There are multiple solutions available from lamp post charging to on-street posts, gullies, charging bridges, community sharing and local charging hubs.  There is no one-size fits all solution. However local authorities play a critical role here. Across the UK some local authorities have really engaged and have good provision, others have not. Government data which is based on Zapmap data https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/electric-vehicle-charging-device-statistics-july-2023 shows this.The LEVI scheme should be a support on this, allocation of funds is in process and we should see the chargers rolling out in 2024. If the implementation does not work effectively, further measures may need to be taken.


  1. Destination charging - this is charging at places where vehicles stop for 20 mins or more - could be at supermarkets, or attractions, hotels etc. This currently accounts for the majority of charge devices, they are typically slow/fast sub 25kW chargers, although there are some rapid / ultra rapid chargers. This will probably be driven by the owners of the locations and will become some form of hygiene factor e.g if you are a a hotel you will need to be able to offer charging to your guests. Limited intervention needed, only to make sure that charging points are simple to use and access.


  1. Community charging where the extensive network of low powered charging is shared across different groups and individuals and reduces the need for installing a high volume of new charging points is also provides a way that the charging network can be extended.

Single charging standard - currently there is a key standard Type 2 Mennekes for AC charging and CCS for DC charging.


Whilst there are many second-hand Nissan Leafs and there are still some new Nissan Leaf’s being sold (which use a CHAdeMO connector), the vast majority of EVs support the CCS standard.  In our opinion there is no legislation needed as the market is moving (has moved) to CCS, the only issue is to make sure there remains enough CHAdeMO connectors to support the legacy EVs.



22. The Government recently published the draft legislation of “Public Charge Point Regulations 2023”. What assessment have you made of the draft legislation text, and what contribution will it make in ensuring the charging experience is standardized and reliable for consumers?


The consumer consultation covers important issues for EV drivers - contactless payment on 8kW+, transparent PAYG pricing, 247 helpline and 99% reliability.  The biggest issue reported with using the public network in Zapmap’s 2022 survey was charge points not working, so the 99% reliability mandate for rapid+ devices is crucial. 


Zapmap tracks the number of out of service charge points based on live status data on c. 70% of all the chargers on the Zapmap database. In August 2023 this was running at c.4% of all devices, this has shown an improvement from c.7% last year. However, this is still quite a way from the objective of 1% - i.e., 99% reliability.


Whilst the government can legislate for 99% reliability, there must be a system in place to measure this by network in a fair and effective manner and also some way to enforce these regulations such as issuing fines.


85% of respondents in the 2022 Zapmap survey selected paying by contactless within their top 3 preferred ways to pay for charging. So, mandating contactless on devices 8kW and above addresses this desire. Currently the vast majority of +50kW chargers are already contactless.  The industry is also developing fully automated method for charging and payment. One such is the use of the ISO15118 standard which enable users to 'Plug & Charge' their vehicle with use of a payment card or app. This will however require continued coordination by OEMs, CPOs, and MSP and (if adopted) is likely to take the rest of the decade to be widely available across the majority of networks and usable by most vehicle brands.



23. What assessment do you make of the requirements set out in the draft legislation of “Public Charge Point Regulations 2023” for charge point operators to make data free and publicly available, and how may this improve the EV charging experience for consumers?


Many organisations such as Zapmap already have bi-lateral agreements with charge point operators to share data. The benefits to the consumer are that these organisations have created applications which show consumers where the charge points are and whether they are able to be used.


There are some charges point operators, with Pod Point and Tesla being the key examples, that do not currently share their data widely. Thus, the Public Charge Point Regulations 2023 would benefit consumers as this charge point operators would need to provide data, and then this data could be incorporated into third party applications. However, the charge point operators that do not share their data are an increasingly small proportion of the installed charge points, so this is a marginal benefit to consumers.


Sharing up to date pricing data would be a benefit to consumers, as this is patchily available at the moment, and the third-party organisations could display this / provide useful information to consumers.