Written evidence from the Lancashire Enterprise Partnership (LEP) (ELV0073) 

The Lancashire Enterprise Partnership (LEP) is pleased to be able to respond to this call for evidence based on the views of our sector group members.  The LEP has six sector groups which are comprised in the main of representatives and leaders of industryAs a county, we have significant capabilities in both low carbon products and technology innovations, but also the ability to manufacture.  As a collective, these industry representatives are well placed to provide real time evidence and insight to support this submission, but they also recognise the wider cross-sectoral growth opportunities associated with the decarbonisation agenda and the need to enhance the current grid capacity, maximise the potential of technology and renewables associated with local geographies and more co-ordinated thinking across the range of policy initiatives.

As individuals and industrialists, they are all willing to do what is necessary to support the government's ambitions but there are challenges to this as identified in the response below.  It is important to note that the perspectives presented are based on individual experience and understanding of the current landscape and as such there are invariably contradictions thereby illustrating and reinforcing the need for the government to demonstrate greater leadership in this area.

Government approaches

1. What are the main obstacles to the achievement of the Government’s 2030 and 2035 phase-out dates? Are the phase-out dates realistic and achievable? If not, what steps should the Government take to make the phase-out dates achievable?

In terms of the automotive sector, it is felt that the 2030 and 2035 phase out dates are realistic as the majority of OEMs are gearing up for this transition.  However, legislation around what can be sold between 2030 and 2035 is still not agreed and as such does not give OEMs the certainty required to encourage key investments – this has been an on-going debate for 5 years.  The supply chain is also still developing, particularly in the case of UK battery manufacture.

The target is achievable based on the supply of electric vehicles and the considerable investment in charge point infrastructure by the private sector supported by government investment. Currently members of Charge UK collectively intend to invest £6 billion into new charge points, and other companies such as Lancashire-based forecourt operator Euro Garages have plans for up to £1 billion investment in EV charging.

However, whilst there has been considerable investment (completed or planned) there remains a concern about the readiness and parity of accessibility to the public rapid charging infrastructure (perceived or otherwise), which is currently a key barrier to mass public EV adoption, particularly for the 44% of households that do not have off-street parking.

Faster rollout of public charging infrastructure through legislated targets is essential to boost customer uptake of EVs. The government has only provided local authorities with a short-term view of EV infrastructure deployments. Instead, the government should enable local authorities to plan up to and well beyond the 2030 deadline to ensure an infrastructure that is fit for purpose.

The government could look to reintroduce the now withdrawn grant incentives scheme for consumers as well as aligning the VAT on public charging (20%) with domestic charging (5%).

The biggest problem is electrical infrastructure. The government has placed huge pressure on those responsible for new grid connections and the Distributed Network Operators (DNOs). Operating as monopolies they have been slow to react and provide the resources to manage electric vehicle charging connections ranging from homes, to workplaces, to large rapid charging hubs, which grows exponentially each year. At the same time the government is pushing them to connect new renewable energy supplies, heat pumps, and the queue is growing considerably. In Lancashire, Electricity NW lead time is considerable. Accelerating new and upgraded network connections will significantly advance electrical vehicle infrastructure deployments.

Conversations with Electricity NW indicate that the current grid capacity is not enough to enable our businesses to expand where they want to expand, let alone mass transitioning to electric vehicles. Nationally, grid capacity is a huge constraint – not solely for the adoption of EVs, but to enable economic growth.  In Lancashire there is a large manufacturing cluster whose growth is hampered and manufacturing related inward investment enquiries can often not be accommodated due to insufficient power supply.  New sites are being developed and marketed for warehousing and distribution as the grid capacity simply isn't there to support more energy intensive sectors.  Grid capacity needs addressing as a matter of urgency.  It is still organised around power stations which impacts on renewables, as the interconnects between renewable resources, such as wind or tidal simply aren't there which presents a major issue for the UK.

Short-terms solutions need to be identified to mitigate this in terms of EV chargingIf the power supply is limited in an area, more could be done to facilitate alternative local supply such as solar panels, and the use of intelligent chargers which are able to adapt according to the energy supply.  The issues in terms of charging and grid constraints could be mitigated by alternative thinking and the exploration of the technology available to identify short, medium and long-term solutions.  The technology is there however it isn't felt that existing technological capabilities aren't being fully exploited, which in turn need to be incorporated into new build – both industrial and domestic.

Local geographies are different, and the government needs to be looking at local / national planning policy especially in terms of wind and solar.  The challenges with the current grid capacity will not be overcome by simply enhancing the existing structure – it is already significantly behind and unable to accommodate current requirements and supporting industrial expansion plans, new housing developments etc.  Localised geographies and the availability of alternative power sources will be one of the solutions and the government needs to look at how planning policy can support this and incorporate relevant mandates for future developments.

For a long time, it has been hoped that the whole transition to EVs would allow for some sort of bidirectional flow during the night, so people charge their cars overnight and then the flow of electricity can go in both directions.  So effectively, you would have trickle charging through till dawn, but during the night it can be used as a bidirectional piece.  This has yet to be taken forward in terms of grid capability, and how the EV is 'communicated' with it to tell it when to charge and by when which in turn is communicated with the grid.  That whole potential currently remains untapped.

Planned 2024 changes to the Brexit Trade and Cooperation Agreement will currently penalise EVs (10% tariff - both on imports and exports to / from UK / EU) due to lack of an established UK or EU battery supply chain to meet the required degree of local content.  A relaxation to 2027 is what the automotive industry is currently lobbying for.


2. Do the 2030 and 2035 phase-out dates serve their purpose to incentivise the development of an EV market in the UK? To what extent are car makers focusing on one date or the other? What are the impacts of the deadlines on the ability of the UK supply chain to benefit and how could the Government seek to further support the development of the UK EV industry? Would the introduction of a plan with key dates and timescales support the development of the EV industry in the UK?

The 2030 and 2035 deadlines have led to huge investment by Charge Point Operators (CPOs) buoyed by the certainty of those timeframes. In Lancashire companies like Euro Garages are committing significant investment to the country, and to a UK and European supply chain. Elsewhere in Lancashire, Fuuse, an electric vehicle charge point operating software provider has grown to over 60 staff in less than two years as it establishes itself as a global player in the market. And companies like Charge My Street, are a growing player in the CPO market and LiNa Energy in EV battery tech. A withdrawal of those deadlines will jeopardise both growth of new companies and damage investment by UK and international companies, and also damage wider faith in investment in government supported initiatives.

The lack of a clear industrial strategy on EV has undermined the case for EV manufacture and battery production in the UK. There remains significant inward investment opportunities as Chinese and American companies like BYD, NIO, Xpeng, Ora, Fisker, Rivian, Lucid and others look to develop manufacturing sites in Europe. A strategy of targeting companies and supporting manufacturing, particularly in areas such as Lancashire with significant large-scale defence, aerospace and vehicle manufacture may result in significant benefits for the UK economy.

Additionally, refocusing investment from funds such as the Northern Powerhouse Investment to rapidly growing companies like Fuuse and LiNa Energy, as European countries have done for their competitors may help shape and support a thriving EV supply chain.

Whilst 2030 has provided the focus for manufacturers, this is currently meaningless as there is no definition of what can be sold between 2030 and 2035, to allow manufacturers to develop appropriate hybrid products – this is a major issue for OEMs such as Toyota, who firmly support the hybrid concept.

Clear definition of the allowable hybrid product gives the UK supply base 5 more years to manage the transition from internal combustion (ICE) to electric or hydrogen in a more planned / structured fashion– currently the lack of definition is resulting in the sector assuming the worst-case scenario.  This will directly impact a large number of Lancashire companies who are currently heavily dependent on ICE technology, who could have 5 more years breathing space if the legislation was agreed.


3. What specific national policies, regulations or initiatives have been successful, or have hindered, EV adoption to date? Are these policies or initiatives fit for purpose?

Grant schemes have had a positive impact. Introducing a grant creates gradual demand and companies scale up operations to suit. However, their withdrawal, such as the domestic charging grant in March 2023 causes a small cliff edge with a considerable drop in demand that has led to redundancies and some companies folding. Managing a steady phasing out by refocusing grants on particular areas of need may have led to a better phase out process.

VAT remains a significant issue. A person who owns or rents their sole property pays just 5% on their electricity usage, while an individual charging in shared accommodation, a workplace or on the road pays 20% VAT. This is fundamentally unfair and stops those without a space to charge at home with a considerable disadvantage by paying a significant premium for the privilege of charging.

The government should support the adoption of Vehicle to Grid (V2G) and provide incentives. This would help balance the grid and provide a sustainable option that would reduce the need for new sources of energy generation.

Lack of legislation around the roll out of the public charging infrastructure is hindering EV adoption.  The government has set a target of 300,000 public charging stations by 2030 (probably a low-ball estimate according to SMMT) and we are currently installing them at an average rate of 1000 / month – we need to hit 3000 / month, every month from now until 2030 to meet the 300,000 targets.

The government needs to make better use of and make better connections with wider policy, such as planning policy, UK Innovation Strategy etc to drive net zero ambitions and the need to identify solutions to some of the infrastructure challenges. (See answer to Q1)


4. Given that the Government should apply a behavioural lens to policy—which involves people making changes to their everyday lives, such as what they purchase and use—is there a role for clearer communication of the case for EVs from the Government? If so, who should take the lead on delivering that?

There is a clear campaign to discredit electric vehicles in a section of the press, often based on misinformation. Government needs to far more effective in eradicating some of the scaremongering in the media. The government needs to provide leadership on electric vehicle adoption, but instead there has been a lot of ambiguity. Giving a clear message with clear data helps adoption but also helps the economy by reinforcing the significant investment from UK and international companies.

Government needs to take more of a lead on the charging infrastructure roll-out via legislated targets – their current view is to let the market dictate this.  The general public consequently have “charging anxiety” and in the absence of factual data, assume the worst case.

However, it needs to be recognised that everyone has different transport needs – some have mobility issues, some only make short trips and so battery range isn't an issue, with 'charging anxiety' becoming an issue for those who frequently make long journeys.

People need to understand how electric cars operate, how they are repaired, and the maintenance required.  Far better communication is required for the general population to alleviate some of the concerns and misinformation, including the type of vehicle to invest in.  For example, hydrogen vehicles are currently being tested in London – will this eventually be the way forward?  People simply do not know the future direction of travel and there needs to be a clear steer from government to reduce the 'fear factor'. 

This steer on the future direction of travel also needs to be given to industry and bodies such as Electricity NW so they have the confidence to make the significant investment required to develop grid capacity.  They also need clear messaging on the origin of power to support EVs.

Government needs to be outwardly overwhelming in favour of EVs as the market can be significantly undermined by using the scaremongering and misinformation for electioneering purposes.


5. What is your view on the accuracy of the information in the public domain relating to EVs and their usage?

See Answer above.


6. What are the overall environmental benefits that would result from achieving the 2030 and 2035 targets?

- Better air quality due to tailpipe CO2 reductions (however we still need to be mindful of the current level of CO2 embedded due to battery manufacture without green electricity
- A significant reduction in respiratory illnesses
- Lower levels of NOx emissions leading to reductions in related illnesses
- Positive benefits for the health system
- Helps to achieve our 2050 net zero goals as transport is the biggest CO2 emitter in the UK

7. What are the likely costs that will be faced by consumers as a result of the Government’s phase-out dates for non-zero emissions vehicles? Are there policies or initiatives that the Government could use to specifically target barriers arising from unpredictable costs to the consumer, for example significant fluctuations in the cost of electricity, changes to road taxes, or the introduction of low emission zones?

Repeated from above.

VAT remains a significant issue. A person who owns or rents their sole property pays just 5% on their electricity usage, while an individual charging in shared accommodation, a workplace or on the road pays 20% VAT. This is fundamentally unfair and stops those without a space to charge at home with a considerable disadvantage by paying a significant premium for the privilege of charging.

See other answers in terms of cost and accessibility for a significant proportion of the populations.

The introduction of Low Emission Zones isn't necessarily the answer and have the potential to be viewed as penalising drivers who have yet to switch to EVs, particularly those who are unable to do so due to cost (therefore impacting those who are less affluent and rural communities due to a lack of viable public transport alternatives) and confidence in the infrastructure.


EV Market and Acquiring an EV

These questions relate to the UK EV market and uptake of EVs by UK consumers.


8. What are the main routes for acquiring an EV? Which aspects of these routes are working well, and which aspects could be improved?

New or used via a dealer – purchased or leased.  High purchase price vs ICE equivalent (typically circa 30 – 50%) is a significant barrier to purchase.  Current uncertainty is impacting residual values of used vehicles, hence inflating leasing costs.


9. What are the main consumer barriers to acquiring an EV, either through purchasing, leasing, or other routes? 

People are also concerned about range for long distance journeys, which indicates there is a lack of confidence in the charging infrastructure, in particular rapid charging – 'charging anxiety'.  The current market and cost results in the EV market being inaccessible for many (see above).

There is also an element of technological maturity and the ability to over-ride when the electric based tech fails, for example altering the position of electric car seats and some parts of the population are perhaps thinking about the safety and durability aspects of EV.

The trend for larger and heavier SUV-style vehicles (across EV, PHEV and ICE) fuels a requirement for higher capacity batteries to achieve the desired range; hence the overall vehicle costs tend to be higher, and consequently the used priceThere is a need for lighter more reasonably sized and more efficient cars that are more affordable (with perhaps 40 to 65 kWh batteries)There are Chinese-made models rapidly gaining a strong foothold in the UK market that are starting to address this. For example, while the 2023 UK Car of the Year, MG4 EV still requires a not inconsiderable £27,000 to purchase outright, strong residuals are beginning to make for more widely attainable leasing terms.


10. How is the Government helping to ensure that EVs are affordable and accessible for consumers, and are these approaches fit for purpose?

In short it, isn’tAffordability for most people is an issue, especially for those who don't have access to off-street parking at home and the associated higher costs when having to charge at public charge points.

The Government should adjust taxation to incentivise appropriately sized and priced vehicles; this route worked very effectively to persuade drivers to switch to diesels in the early 2000s.  Given many private buyers purchase used lease and fleet vehicles, BIK terms could be adjusted in the same way company car drivers were persuaded into sub 2 Litre diesels during this period.  There could be better tax breaks for small and moderate sized cars up to family size or, tax premiums to discourage SUVs or vehicles over a certain weight or energy consumption – for example, those that consume so much energy to move their bulk that they achieve an average of less than 4 miles per kWh.


11. Do you think the range of EVs on offer in the UK is sufficient to meet market needs? Which segments are under-served and why? Why is the UK market not seeing low cost EVs, particularly in comparison to China?

In terms of the commercial market, no. We need more and better-quality light van and heavier vehicle models.

Chinese vehicles aren’t in the UK in volume yet. Prices will fall as technology improves, such as solid-state batteries.

Views on the domestic market is mixed. The range of EVs available is continually growing (currently circa 160 models available).

However, the lower end of the market is not well support by UK / EU manufacturers due to the lack of a mature local supply chain (chicken and egg in terms of demand and supply – we do not yet have the required economies of scale locally to achieve price parity with ICE products) and we risk allowing a flood of cheap imports from China with the associated impact on our home / EU manufacturing sector.

A lot of EVs currently on the market are big SUVs / mini-SUVs and car manufacturers state this is where the demand lies.  Many car manufacturers are pulling out of the ideal ‘first car’ due to profit marginsAn increase in the availability of small cars/vehicles needs to be part of the solution. There needs to be EVs which are available new to the market for a cost of £10,000 to £13,000 which is more accessible and will result in them reaching the second-hand market for a cost of around £5,000.  At the moment EVs are nowhere near this

12. What is the future role of L-segment and personal light electric vehicles, and how will that impact car ownership and usage? What is inhibiting their uptake?

There are significant opportunities for both private and light commercial (last mile delivery) applications.  The sector not currently understood by the general public and there are no incentives available – e.g., these vehicles can be driven by 14-year-olds in some EU markets and in also in bus lanes etc.


13. What is your assessment of the current second-hand EV market? How is the second-hand EV market projected to develop between now and the phase out dates?

There are significant customer concerns and/or lack of information on risks (or not) of purchasing / running a used EV.  Skills shortage also results in many of the traditional independent garages not being currently able to service / repair these vehicles, so customers are faced with using main dealers, with their associated high prices, and their capacity is limited. (See also answer to Q11)


14. What is the relationship between EV leasing and the second-hand market and how do they interrelate?

One feeds the other – high leasing prices on new vehicles (due to poor projected residuals) are starving the used market. (See previous answers)


15. What barriers are there to achieving a sufficient supply of second-hand EVs, mindful that second-hand vehicles make up a high proportion of all vehicles purchased?

More incentives around new vehicle purchase (and lower leasing costs through improved residuals) will in turn feed the used market.  The cost of second-hand EVs still remain high in comparison to ICEs.


16. What is the value and role of alternative transport models such as car clubs and micro mobility vehicles in the Government achieving the 2030 phase out date, and how should the Government consider their roles and opportunities for use in transport decarbonisation?

Neither the incentives or the infrastructure are currently in place or planned.  The pandemic also resulted in a backward step as people felt safe in their own vehicles by themselves.

Incentives could include carpools lanes (as in US) and preferential parking.


17. Are consumers charged higher rates of insurance for an EV when compared to an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle, and if so, are these higher rates justified? Can the Government do anything to mitigate this?

Difficult to accurately comment on this, however a higher purchase price generally translates into a higher insurance premium.



Experience of using an EV

18. What are the main challenges that UK consumers face in their use of EVs?

Consistent access to reliable public charging points, in particular rapid charging points.  Whilst it is recognised the availability of rapid charging points is constantly changing, they aren't yet uniformly available across the country.  This isn't solely an issue in rural areas, but also in densely populated areas where they would be expected.

Also, those with the larger cars – the SUVs – which have the 100 plus kWh batteries -can take between 2-3 hours to charge which means those with the smaller cars need to wait.  This also means these cars are extremely heavy, frequently well in excess of two tonnesIn a county such as Lancashire, which in some parts has an extremely hilly landscape in both rural and urban areas, in snow or icy weather, the weight of the car presents a real problem if stopping is required quickly but is hindered due to weight.  Lower vehicle weight should bring the added benefit of reducing tyre particulate pollution.

Reliability of charging points, in terms of actually working (such as accepting card payments) can be an issue, which results in people gravitating to those which they know do work resulting in long queues.  See also response to Q21 in relation to apps.

The prices of new EVs means they are not accessible to everyone.  Whilst it is acknowledged that some manufacturers are looking to produce 'cheaper' cars, they remain out of reach for many until they become available on the second-hand market, where prices are still higher than a second-hand ICE.

One member of the group stated that as a management board, they took the decision to buy a fleet of EVs for their management team and introduced free charging at the place of employment.  However, the result was people came to work in their own cars and often resorted to using these to undertake company business as the EVs / infrastructure wasn't suitable for their needs.


19. What are the main benefits that UK consumers could realise from using an EV?

If drivers predominantly charge at home, then they will see lower running costs. If they have EV tariffs or solar at home, then the savings will be significant. In addition, vehicle servicing and repair costs are significantly lowered (there are as low as 8 parts to an EV motor compared to 2,000 in an ICE engine) leading to a further decline in operating costs. V2G will also allow EV owners to reduce the cost of operation further. Lastly, there are the health benefits.


20. How prepared are car dealerships, service networks, repairs and maintenance organisations, breakdown services and aftermarket suppliers to meet the growing EV uptake?

Significant work to do here with independent repairers.  Most EVs are still under manufacturers’ warranties and therefore the problem is currently somewhat masked.

Perhaps there could be instances of sluggishness, or a lack of willingness, for car dealerships to promote or encourage the swich to EVs, as it will require a significant change to their existing business models that rely heavily on ICE servicing.


21. How does the charging infrastructure for EVs need to develop to meet the 2030 target? Does the UK need to adopt a single charging standard (e.g., the Combined Charging System (CCS)) or is there room in the market for multiple charger types?

Roaming should be standardised and go well beyond the government’s 2024 proposals.

Incentives should be provided not just for on the road charging but also for destination charging such as hotels and visitor attractions, and workplaces. This is a substantially lower cost model but because of the long or overnight stay or the workday, the outcome for the driver is the same. Consequently, the government can invest less but get a greater return, while also reducing costs for the driver as destination and workplace charging is typically 40% cheaper on average.

Removing CHAdeMO connectors is a challenge. However, going CCS only would significantly reduce the cost of charger manufacturing, improve reliability, and increase utilisation. The government should provide the charging industry with data on the number of vehicles CCS vs CHAdeMo, so they can make investment decisions based on demand. If the number of CHAdeMO vehicles on the road is low a scheme to phase out these vehicles, as Nissan are doing, may lead to alternative use. This is a difficult decision.

Keep it simple with a single standard – most users are not tech savvy.  When you do have to charge away and on long-distance / in an unfamiliar area, you often have to download an app for that particular provider, insert card details etc which can take a long time, especially if there isn't a good mobile coverage.  The suppliers of software for the chargers need to find a solution to make is easier for people to access chargers – this is the finessing of the of the charging infrastructure to make it actually usable in the most effective way, by the widest possible number of users.   Minimum reliability standards (now introduced) need to be enforced.

The Tesla infrastructure is viewed as a good model, whereby they tend to work (as so are reliable) and the infrastructure enables travels virtually around the UK and allows super-charging which takes approximately 15mins and you can continue your journey.  This still isn't available to all non-Tesla vehicles, but the model is a good example of the type of infrastructure required nationally with the capacity to charge all EVs.


22. The Government recently published the draft legislation of “Public Charge Point Regulations 2023”. What assessment have you made of the draft legislation text, and what contribution will it make in ensuring the charging experience is standardized and reliable for consumers?

The Public Charge Point Regulations 2023 are on the whole is an excellent piece of legislation.

-          Reliability standards need to be made clear. There is no reporting structure or mechanism agreed, which needs to be resolved.

-          Roaming could be significantly extended to enable access to all chargers. A national roaming hub backed by government and industry would reduce costs and lower reliance on France’s Gireve and Germany’s Hubject roaming hubs.

-          There is no agreed system for reporting EV charging data. There is no incentive for industry to fund it and the government won’t so there is the potential for stasis.


23. What assessment do you make of the requirements set out in the draft legislation of “Public Charge Point Regulations 2023” for charge point operators to make data free and publicly available, and how may this improve the EV charging experience for consumers?

Lancashire based EV charging software provider Fuuse are at the forefront of UK roaming and the provision of booking solutions to reduce queuing and improve utilisation.

The value is not in the roaming per se, but in data that emanates, such as availability of chargers, visualisation through in-car displays, and associated planning tools. The government needs to do more to support British companies operating in the UK and overseas who are at the forefront of innovation, such as Bonnet, Paua, Fuuse, WattsUp, ABRP and others who are creating global companies.


24. In terms of charging infrastructure, are there unique barriers facing consumers in areas of low affluence and/or multi-occupancy buildings, such as shared housing or high-rise flats? Do you consider public EV charging points to be accessible and equitable compared to home-charging points? What can be done to improve accessibility and equitability?

There is a need to implement design standards that support disabled access to charging infrastructure.

The cost and challenges of implementing EV charging infrastructure in multi-occupancy buildings will lead to a democratic deficit. More should be done around dedicated metered supplies, reducing VAT to 5% for shared supplies, and sharing of bays to bring down costs.

As it currently stands, the cost of charging away from home is more expensive than the petrol option which shouldn't be the case if people are to be encouraged to choose EVs.  For example, the cost of charging at home can be around 9p per kWh, however if you travel outside beyond the range of your battery you can be charged in excess of 80p per kWh

Within Lancashire, particularly in the east of the county, the housing stock is predominantly terraced housing, many of which are in less affluent areas and the vast majority do not have access to off street parking.  The Rossendale Terraced Street Project in Lancashire is working with local communities to help them develop a support network to facilitate the transition to net zero.  As part of this project, they are looking at ways to create cost-effective energy, having a solar co-operative. and discounting the energy to the EVs and developing an EV card club (more details are available if required). 

Nationally, 44% of households do not have off street parking.  Whilst the current home charging infrastructure is fine for those with off street parking, it isn't the case for others – especially the significant terraced areas on Lancashire.  With this comes the risk of social exclusion. 


25. Is there a financial benefit to the consumer of choosing an EV over an ICE vehicle? Are there further benefits, aside from financial, that a consumer may gain from EV use?

Yes. See Question 19.


26. What options are there for consumers for end-of-life management of batteries and EVs, and what impact does this have on consumer attitudes towards buying an EV?

Opportunities with second use in domestic storage applications.  Emerging market is not yet fully understood, particularly by the end buying public.


27. What are the current regulations and responsibilities of disposal and recycling for EVs, and how effective are they? How much of the battery can be recycled from a technical standpoint, and how much of that is economically feasible?

Current EoL legislation does not adequately cover EV batteries.  There are some significant circular economy opportunities in this area.


28. Is there a risk that the residual value of EVs may be lower than the value of the EV as a source of recoverable critical minerals, and how might this effect the flow of EVs into the second-hand market?

Not currently, as we do not have economies of scale with regard to recovery of the critical materials – however this is dependent on the economics of the raw / virgin material supply chain which is currently dependent on a number of geo-politically sensitive / unstable regions (China, Democratic Republic of Congo etc – another “Ukraine-type” war could change this situation overnight)


National and regional issues

29. What are the challenges or concerns around grid capacity in relation to significantly increased EV adoption?

More needs to be done in the following areas:

- Smart charging to balance the grid
- V2G and V2X – now mandated in the USA
- Balance mechanism
- Fleet smart charging for shift to later in the evening (Royal Mail has biggest EV fleet but vehicles often charge at peak times due to inflexible charging infrastructure).
- More rapid connections (see previous answer)

- Insufficient generation and distribution capacity and outdated, cumbersome planning laws are inhibiting the roll out of the charging infrastructure


30. What is the role of distribution network operators in ensuring EV infrastructure can be rolled out sufficiently to meet 2030 target?

See Q1.

To ensure that we have the required capacity to satisfy forecasted demand and to be transparent / honest with government and the public in terms of the blockers and required enablers (such as planning policy)


31. What are the requirements, challenges, or opportunities for the development of public charge point delivery across the UK? How will the development of EV charging infrastructure in the UK interact with existing planning regulations?

See previous answers.


32. What are the issues facing rural residents, urban residents, and sub-urban residents and how do they differ?

Economics and the viability of adequate public charging points.  A good example is rail electrification – after 60 years many rural rail lines are still not electrified as it is still not economically viable.


33. What role do you see local authorities playing in the delivering the 2030 phase out target, particularly in relation to planning regulations, charge points and working with District Network Operators? How can government best support local authorities in their roles?

There should be government enforced targets for each region.  Government can support with planning regulation overhaul (see previous answers).  Cf EU where since 2021 all member states have adopted the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation, which mandates a certain minimum charging infrastructure – this should be prior to the petrol / diesel new vehicles sales ban in 2035.


International perspectives

34. What are the successful approaches to the rollout and uptake of EVs in other countries, and what can the UK learn from these cases?

Norway has numerous policies the UK could adopt, such as the 50% rule that sees EV drivers paying half the toll, parking and even ferry fees of ICE vehicles.

The US is making adoption of Plug and Charge a legal requirement, which will significantly enhance the driver charging experiences. The US is the world leader in EV adoption who achieved this feat through tax and other incentives which levelled the cost of purchasing an EV vs an ICE equivalent vehicle.

The German calibration law ensures accuracy of EV chargers.

The Irish government are mandating new supplies for apartment blocks to make EV charging installation easier.

There is a lot to learn.

See also answer to Q33.