Written evidence submitted by College of Policing (POP0052)

About the College

Formed in 2012, the College is an operationally independent arms - length body of the Home Office. As the professional body for policing in England and Wales, we support everyone in policing to reduce crime and keep people safe. Through our three core functions: sharing knowledge and good practice, setting standards, and supporting professional development – the College plays a critical role in the policing system, supporting improvement and driving change across the service.

Q1) What a modern police service, fit for the 2020s and beyond, looks like?

1. A police service fit for the future needs:

These underpin the reforms we are putting in place to modernise policing, which include:

 

Professional Skills

Initial training

2. The College has laid the foundation for career-long learning in the police service with a new initial training and entry routes for new recruits. The new training covers the full range of knowledge and skills they need to police 21st century communities. New recruits acquire competence in core policing activities such as effective incident response and crime prevention, alongside new areas of learning designed to ensure that they are digitally proficient, can use data effectively, and can protect the vulnerable from crime.

3. The new training is necessarily demanding to prepare recruits for a highly complex and responsible role. To attract recruits with a diverse range of backgrounds and experience we have designed a flexible range of five different entry routes. Only one of these, the degree holder entry programme (DHEP) - requires a degree beforehand. Two of the new entry routes build on experience either as a Police Community Support Officer or Special Constable, while the Police Degree Apprenticeship and Pre-join Degree require neither a previous degree nor policing experience. The service also remains open to people with experience in the military and we are trialling new entry routes specifically for military personnel.

4. As of March 2021, the majority of new joiners to the service have been on one of the new entry routes, which will be fully phased in by April 2023. Surveyed about their training last year, levels of satisfaction with force education and training were 20% higher among recruits on the new entry routes than on the old. Those on the new routes were 30% more likely to say that it prepared for the role; 24% were more likely to say that it gave them the necessary skills and 22% more likely to report that it recognised the needs of different communities.[1]

5. The latest survey, out very soon, continues to bear this out, with those coming through the new routes still more satisfied and seeing greater value in the education and training they receive from their force, than those on the old routes. The survey results bring out the importance of forces forging strong, close partnerships with their selected education providers and we are working hard to bring all forces up to the standard of the best. 

Specialist training and CPD

6. A modern police force needs to prioritise and invest in training and CPD.  This has not always been the case and there are now significant skills gaps in critical specialisms. In 2021, the shortfall in detectives, (Professional Investigation Programme Level 2 accredited investigators) grew to 6,851 from 4,974 the previous year.[2] Despite there being over five million frauds a year, just 0.7 per cent of the police workforce are in specialist economic crime teams.[3]  Rape cases are now routinely investigated by generalists rather than specialists, a trend which has been linked to deteriorating case quality and victim disengagement.[4] Recruiting and retaining digital forensics specialists is an issue for all forces as is the level of digital competence among non-specialists.[5]

7. We offer training and CPD that can address these gaps. Our Professionalising Investigation Programme qualifies officers to become detectives and provides training in highly specialised areas, such as digital investigation, rape and child abuse investigation and surveillance. We also provide resources to help all officers and staff improve the core skills they need to do their job including “Operation Modify” - a series of 11 ten-minute modules of online CPD that equip every officer with the fundamentals of digital investigation.

8. Forces need encouragement to take up the resources on offer. Even for skills that are urgently needed to tackle the changing nature of crime, professional development is not currently given the priority it deserves. Operation Modify, for example, is vital training for raising the baseline level of digital competency for all officers.  Our data shows that just under 15% of officers and staff[6] overall have taken one or more of its modules since it was launched in 2020 and only 4.5% have completed the whole course. While engagement is extremely high in some forces – in Merseyside it is almost 100% -there are 10 forces where not even 2% of officers have taken a single module.

9. During the past year, we have released further modules of Operation Modify on assessing risk and vulnerability in a digital environment, managing digital evidence, maximising digital information and intelligence, and casefile digital evidence, but these have been taken on average by less than 2.5% of officers.[7] The team behind Modify involved forces in developing the product, has a dedicated outreach function and is engaging extensively with all forces to promote this learning.

10. Another example of critically important skills and knowledge is our digital policing Foundation Level 1 eLearning, launched in 2020, which offers an introduction to the criminal uses of technology for officers and staff of all ranks and grades. Again, take-up is mixed but overall just under 7% of officers have completed it. 

11. With officer numbers increasing through Uplift, it is more important than ever that those new to the service are supported with the investment in skills that they need to provide an effective service to the public. Chiefs need to be supported to make time for CPD within their forces and incentivize participation. They need to release officers for training and CPD and plan effectively for the future by protecting these budgets when savings have to be made.[8] The recruits coming through Uplift will have an expectation of good quality CPD which must be serviced if they are to be retained and perform well in their role.

12. The quality of forces’ own training products is variable and contributes to a postcode lottery of policing approaches.  The lack of cross-force recognition of training and qualifications was repeatedly mentioned by officers as a source of frustration in the Home Office’s Frontline Review.[9] We encourage forces to direct officers towards the national, standardised training and CPD products we provide.

13. To encourage forces to do this we are:

Making our training and CPD more relevant and accessible: Following feedback from the frontline, we are translating more of our learning into shorter modular formats to minimise the time officers need to spend away from the frontline. We are also linking training and CPD explicitly to specific ranks and roles and strengthening our focus on training and CPD on digital investigation both as a core skill and a specialism.

Embedding in-demand skills and specialisation right from the start: Recruits on our Degree Holder Entry Programme (DHEP) and Police Constable Degree Apprenticeship can specialise in their final year in key aspects of policing including intelligence and investigation. A version of the DHEP trains new recruits to be fully qualified detectives in two years. Over 600 new recruits have joined via this pathway, which provides direct entry into one of policing’s most critical roles.

Preventing skills gaps arising in the first place by working directly with forces to improve how they match the officer numbers and skill sets with changing patterns of demand. A strong focus on workforce planning has been embedded into the Police Uplift Programme and will feature as a core component of our new senior leadership offer. However, in the longer term it would make sense for policing to have service-wide capability in workforce planning, providing a national picture of evolving threats and the distribution of relevant skills across the service. The Police Foundation has suggested this should be housed within the College.[10]

Leadership

14. Everyone in modern policing has a leadership role and the complexity of the current and future operating environment demands effective leadership skills at all levels. Over the next few years, there will be almost 50,000 new recruits entering policing and they will need the best support from everyone in the service from the frontline supervisors who oversee them to the Chief Constables who set the direction and model the values of the force.

15. We are establishing the National Centre for Police Leadership to function as a centre of excellence for the development of leadership skills in policing. The Centre will act as the heart of our leadership work, setting standards and providing a host of guidance, tools, and resources. It will redefine professional development in policing, supporting it as an essential element of progression and promotion. The Centre will provide specific development to underrepresented and undiscovered talent at all levels. We have focused our early efforts on sergeants, who represent the backbone of policing leadership and set the tone and expectations for the frontline, particularly those new in service.

16. We are also developing a new focus on senior leadership to address longstanding concerns about the diversity and size of the pipeline to chief officer. Following growing concerns over the last 18 months about this, and the high number of temporary Assistant Chief Constables across forces, we commissioned an independent review of chief officer progression and development.

17. The review highlighted issues around the identification, support and development of the future talent pipeline. It found that minority groups are less likely to self-identify as being ready for Senior PNAC – the gateway assessment for the Strategic Command Course (SCC) which officers need to take if to compete for Chief Officer roles. Of those that do take part in Senior PNAC, not enough are passing it. Other key issues include role attractiveness, accessibility of Senior PNAC and the SCC and a reliance on temporary promotions.

18. The College will prioritise implementing the recommendations that will achieve immediate and fundamental change in 2023, namely replacing the senior PNAC and the SCC through a new Police Executive Leadership Programme.  We will also implement wider recommendations on how better to identify, develop and support the talent pipeline earlier in people’s careers and offer extended development opportunities to aspiring chief officers from under-represented groups. We will define the development expectations and offer for senior police staff define the selection standards and process for substantive and temporary chief officer appointments.

19. Even with all the work we are doing through the Centre, the College cannot transform leadership in policing on its own. It will take a system-wide effort. As the independent review made clear, forces themselves need to identify, develop and support a pipeline of officers with potential to become senior or chief officers, starting early in their careers, and provide targeted support for those from under-represented groups. The review also recommended that HMICFRS examines through its inspection regime whether forces are doing this effectively and providing officers and staff the development opportunities we make available. We are working across the service to make these changes happen.

20. As part of the Fundamental Review of the College of Policing, we heard from the service about the importance of a home where police officers and staff of all ranks and roles can come together to train and develop, so we are developing a business case for the centre to have a physical location where key training can take place face to face.

21. Even with all the work we are doing through the Centre, the College cannot transform leadership in policing on its own. It will take a system-wide effort. Forces themselves need to identify, develop, and support a pipeline of officers with potential to become senior or chief officers, starting early in their careers, and to provide targeted support for those from underrepresented groups. We would welcome HMICFRS examining the extent to which forces are doing this effectively and providing officers and staff the development opportunities we make available as part of their inspection work.

Consistency

22. Underpinning the changes we are making to initial training, entry routes, and leadership, is the need to bring a much higher degree of consistency to core policing activities. While local decision making and operational independence are essential, a weakness of the 43-force model is the extent of problematic variations in critical aspects of policing.[11]

23. We set out in our Fundamental Review that the police service needs to commit to delivering the fundamental components of policing to a consistent standard. Although we publish best practice standards (“Authorised Professional Practice”) and evidence-based guidelines, forces do not need to follow them and divergence is routine.

24. In October 2022, Chief Constables agreed with us that there are some core police services that all forces should commit to delivering to the same standard. The first of these is to ensure that an officer attends the scene of all burglaries. The impetus behind the announcement was evidence from the College that visiting crime scenes can provide investigative opportunities to solve the case, reassure victims and prevent future offences.

25. We have also collaborated with the NPCC and HMICFRS on a new framework for homicide investigations that all forces will be inspected against from 2023. The framework gives every force the most up-to-date and relevant strategies on tackling the drivers of homicide, including knife crime, domestic abuse, and drug-related crime. This co-ordinated, collaborative approach will provide better support for policing and give standards set in key areas service-wide strategic importance.

26. We will work with the Government and policing partners to establish which other aspects of policing would benefit from more assertive standard-setting. We have suggested that three principles can serve as a guide:

i) Where the evidence base is so strong that a single approach is guaranteed to deliver better policing outcomes, or where other methods are so detrimental that their use needs to be proscribed.

ii) Where the public or victims of crime would expect a standard approach wherever they are in the country.

iii) Where officers and staff should be able to expect a single approach regardless of their force, or consistency will deliver better outcomes. This might include a uniform approach to professional development reviews (PDRs) or consistent approaches to officer safety training.

Q2) What balance police forces in England and Wales should strike between a focus on preventing and solving crime and carrying out their other functions?

27. Policing partners need to work with government and other parts of the public sector to cut the non-crime demand which diverts officers from their core mission to prevent and detect crime. Failure to do so will blunt the impact, not just of the changes we are making to policing, but any measures to improve performance.

28. Only a quarter of incidents police respond to have been found to involve crime, with the police dealing with a significant and potentially increasing number of vulnerable individuals with issues primarily related to mental health, alcohol, drugs, and homelessness, rather than crime.[12] This type of demand, which arises from the unmet demand from other public sector agencies, is likely to consume more resource effort as they are complex and often involve combined agency response.[13]

29. The College has produced an APP and training on mental health and other vulnerabilities to help officers respond. Our initial training routes and learning resources around community problem solving set out evidence-based approaches to working with other agencies to manage both crime and non-crime demand. These strategies have been shown to be effective at managing demand and forces and their partner agencies should use them. At the same time, policing cannot realistically be expected to manage both crime demand and the pressures of becoming in effect the service of last resort for people in crisis. A government-wide response is needed to bring about a more sustainable distribution of demand.

Q4) What can be done to improve community policing and increase trust in police officers and forces, including on funding and on disciplinary powers when police officer behaviour falls below required standards?

30. It will take a service-wide effort to boost confidence in local policing, which has been declining since 2016-17.[14] This period coincided with cuts to policing budgets and a deterioration of policing’s core functions, including falling detection rates, lengthening call response and declining visibility.

31. There is no single driver for levels of public confidence and restoring it requires co-ordinated action on many fronts including professional standards, leadership, operational practice and workplace culture. The College brings together expertise across all these areas in one place.

Professional standards

32. The service needs to be better at removing the minority of officers who let down their colleagues by behaving in ways that damage public trust. We are doing everything in our power to make sure that the disciplinary system affords these individuals nowhere to hide.

33. We have strengthened statutory guidance for misconduct tribunals to make it clear that those who undermine the public’s trust should face the toughest sanctions.[15] These now make it clear that those who undermine the public’s trust should face severe consequences.[16]The revised guidance states that chairs of misconduct hearings should consider the impact on public confidence in policing even where there has been no harm caused and the incident is not in the public domain. This follows recent incidents of unprofessional language and conduct by police officers in the workplace and on WhatsApp, such as behaviour investigated by the Independent Office for Police Conduct as part of Operation Hotton.[17] The updated guidance includes a new section on violence against women and girls, saying the outcome for officers guilty of these offences is likely to be severe.

34. We are changing policing’s Code of Ethics to give it greater practical impact. We are placing ethics, inclusivity and upholding public trust at the heart of the standards we are developing through the National Leadership Centre. The first stage of our new leadership programme, incorporated into our initial training for new recruits, means all new recruits will learn from day one the importance of upholding and role-modelling the profession’s values in everything they do.

Getting the “basics” right in community policing

35. Confidence in policing is not just shaped by perceptions of service integrity but also by how well communities think their local force is delivering. Evidence shows that what communities are looking for from their force is a visible and effective neighbourhood policing presence that interacts well with the public it serves.[18]

 

36. Community policing – or neighbourhood policing – is an area where there is abundant evidence about which strategies are effective at cutting crime. Effective problem solving, engagement and prevention are the foundation of any effective neighbourhood policing team and are an integral part of our Neighbourhood Policing APP. HMICFRS inspection findings highlight commitments to problem-solving and neighbourhood policing as key features of stronger performing forces. There is very strong evidence that problem-solving strategies that identify, analyse and address the underlying causes of repeat offending prevent crime.[19] Our What Works Centre for Crime Reduction (WWC) has compiled practical evidence-based guides to applying these methods to serious crime[20] and our specialist teams are working with forces to improve how they are implemented on the ground. We will shortly be publishing evidence-based guidelines on how simple, problem-solving strategies can be applied by all forces.

 

37. The WWC also provides forces with methods proven to improve police-public interactions, such as body-worn cameras, which are associated with a reduction of complaints.[21] As with neighbourhood policing, evidence-based methods are there but they need to be taken up consistently by forces. However complex and fast evolving the operational environment becomes, policing must never neglect policing “basics” such as providing a visible, reassuring presence to communities and implementing what works to cut crime.

Improving trust and confidence for under-represented groups.

38. Some groups in society have not had the service they deserve from the police and this weighs on overall levels of confidence.

39. Policing – including the College – has made insufficient progress in addressing the extent of the disparities in how the police use their powers on members of different communities, particularly Black communities. Black people are significantly more likely to be arrested, stopped and searched and subjected to the use of force than their White counterparts or other Ethnic Minorities.[22] Confidence in police forces is lower among Black people than it is among White and Ethnic Minorities.[23]

40. The service has also not progressed fast enough in reversing the marginalisation of violence against women and girls (VAWG).[24] Despite soaring numbers of reports of these offences in recent years, detection rates and prosecutions for these offences have fallen. The detection rate for rape is 1.3%, which is unacceptable.[25]

41. Although representation of both women and people from Ethnic minorities in the service is improving, policing remains under-representative of both at all ranks and grades.[26] Progress in recruitment and progression of Black officers has not made acceptable progress.

42. These problems are complex and span both working culture and operational practice. The College and the NPCC have brought together two task forces to drive co-ordinated service-wide overhauls of how policing approaches both VAWG and its engagement with Black people.

43. In May 2022, the College and the NPCC committed to addressing racial disparities proactively through a new Police Race Action Plan (PRAP) which sets out wide-ranging changes to police training and education on race; the scrutiny of police powers; community engagement and how policing protects Black victims of crime.

44. In December 2021, the College, working with the NPCC set out the actions that forces need to take to give VAWG victims a consistently high standard of service. All police forces have committed to delivering these actions, which together form the Violence Against Women and Girls National Framework.

45. As part of the framework, the College is producing national standards for VAWG investigations. In our Fundamental Review, we identify rape and serious sexual assault investigations as an area that might benefit from mandatory standards, given the extent of concern from HMICFRS, victims and the public about investigation quality and outcomes.[27]

46. We have also set out the steps that forces need to take to ensure robust and impartial investigation of allegations of police-perpetrated domestic abuse, in response to well-founded concerns that this is not always happening.[28] As part of these steps, we have updated statutory guidance on misconduct outcomes to be clear that officers guilty of VAWG should expect to be sacked and barred from ever returning to the service. 

Wider College work to promote diversity in policing

47. Alongside the PRAP and the VAWG framework, the College continues to run a range of interventions to promote the recruitment, retention, and promotion of under-represented groups. Our new entry routes to policing are helping to broaden the appeal of policing careers to people from a more diverse range of backgrounds. 13.6% of new joiners on the Degree Holder Entry Programme in 2021 identified as members of ethnic minorities and 52.3% were female.[29] Nearly 60% of recruits to the Detective DHEP were female and 14.2% were from ethnic minorities.[30]

48. This has helped increase the diversity of new recruits overall, although the cohort is not fully representative of the general population: Of the 27,334 recruits joining the service since April 2020, 42.3% were female, compared to 34.6% of the wider policing workforce. The percentage of female new joiners is significantly higher than it was at the time of the 2020 Police Workforce Census (39.1%).

49. 11.7% of the Uplift cohort are from Ethnic Minority backgrounds, compared to 8.1% for the wider workforce and 14% for the wider population.[31] In 2020, 7.2% of new joiners were from Ethnic Minorities, so there has been a substantial improvement, albeit one that masks different rates of progress among different groups. The recruitment of Black people has seen negligible improvement with just 1.7% of new recruits identifying as Black, compared to 1.3% of the rest of the workforce and 3.3% of the population.[32]

50. The service has seen some progress on career progression for under-represented groups. More promotions within police forces are going to people from Ethnic Minorities, constituting 9.5% of promotions in the year-ending March 2022 compared to 6.5% the year before. [33] The proportion of promotions awarded to female officers rose to 31.2% in the year-ending March 22, compared to 29.4% the year before. And there has been some progress in diversifying the top ranks with 6.8% of Chief Officers who are from Ethnic Minorities, compared to 4.7% the year before and 2.0% in 2020. The proportion of female chief officers during this time has also continued a slow but steady improving trajectory, rising from 31.2% in 2020 to 33.5% in 2022

51. We have been supporting these positive trends in progression through a wide range of interventions targeted at under-represented groups, including development programmes such as Aspire, a programme whose evaluation indicated a link to swift career development after completion.[34] Over 2021-22 we provided 22 Aspire programmes, 12 Aspire-linked masterclasses and 1,023 executive coaching sessions for members of under-represented groups. Even so, representation of women and Ethnic Minorities remains concentrated at lower ranks and - as we set out in answer to Question 1 - the pipeline of talent for the chief officer roles is not working as it should. Addressing this will be a major focus of the new National Centre for Police Leadership and the work we are doing to reform the chief officer assessment and development process.

Q6) What steps can be taken to improve national conviction rates, including via relationships with other bodies such as the Crown Prosecution Service?

52. The College is working closely with the NPCC and CPS to improve case progression post-charge, minimise delays and prepare robust cases. It is vital, in our view, that all agencies involved in the criminal justice system are focused on shared outcomes. Presently, each organisation has different objectives and targets. This leads to a lack of coordination and, sometimes, conflict between them. The aim of every organisation in the criminal justice system should be the efficient and effective delivery of fair justice for everyone involved, be they victims, witnesses, or suspects.

53. There are many issues that are obstructing efficient criminal justice systems. For example, information technology is being adopted too slowly because of different systems in each part of the system. This issue is being resolved and commitment for rapid adoption of these technologies is required.

54. One of the key pinch points in case progression is disclosure and redaction of personal and other data. As digital devices develop ever greater storage capacity, disclosure becomes a longer and more complex task. Disclosure requires investigators to examine the materials they gather during an investigation and classify it into material to be used in the prosecution case; material that will not be in the prosecution case but could be of value to the defence; material that can have no bearing on the case. This can be a long and complex task. It often falls to inexperienced officers who are overwhelmed by it and their workloads more generally.

55. The College is seeking to address this issue in several ways including, helping to fill the shortage of detectives so that there are more of them with the skills needed to undertake this demanding work. The curriculum for all new entry routes into policing has increased and improved content on the skills required for investigation. New recruits training takes new joiners much closer to the knowledge and skills that were previously the domain of CID officers. In addition, the College has introduced the Detective elective. This enables all new recruits entering via the Police Constable Degree Apprenticeship route to elect to follow the detective pathway in the third year of their entry course. We have also worked with forces to create the Detective Direct Entry scheme. Officers entering the service by this route complete their initial training and are then deployed into investigative roles. The uplift in skills is intended to improve the overall quality of investigations and in particular, support policing to manage disclosure more effectively.

56. In addition, we have devised a range of other strategies to support policing, including digital training that has been downloaded approximately 100,000 times. For example, our innovative digital training product, Operation Modify, focuses on the investigative opportunities that the digital and IT world presents, and focuses on the important legal considerations such as the rights of victims to a private life and the requirements of disclosure. We have also embedded disclosure and other investigative elements into our other training. The most promising approach is the network of “disclosure champions” in forces, who drive awareness of best practice among colleagues. Expanding this network is now the focus of our efforts – efforts which need to be system-wide and sustained to succeed.

57. Siloed working habits among police and prosecutors also hinder the progress of complex cases. The new approach to rape investigations developed by Operation Soteria is based on closer and earlier collaboration with the CPS. Operation Soteria is targeted at improving investigation and prosecution of rape and serious sexual offences. The clear focus on improving these aspects is already showing some encouraging signs of progress and reflects the point above about the importance of focus on shared outcomes. We expect the learning from Operation Soteria will be applicable to a wider range of investigations, for example, the emphasis on examining the behaviour of the suspect, the tactics used by suspects to overcome inhibitions and resistance of victims will be of use in many other investigations.

58. To help align police - prosecutor working practices more closely, we are also co-producing training products with the CPS. These efforts are part of a wider shift towards making sure criminal justice partners act as a single system and as a single team where it matters most.

October 2022


[1] Between March and April 2021, 11,148 officers were invited to take part in the survey and there were 3,844 eligible responses.

[2] NPCC  Strategic Workforce Assessment, 2021

[3] The Strategic Review of Policing in England and Wales - The Police Foundation (police-foundation.org.uk)

[4] Review into  the Criminal Justice  System  response  to adult  rape  and serious  sexual  offences  across England and  Wales (publishing.service.gov.uk) Ch 10.2; A joint thematic  inspection  of the  police and Crown Prosecution Service’s response to rape – Phase  one:  From report  to police or CPS  decision to take  no further  action - HMICFRS  (justiceinspectorates.gov.uk)

[5] NPCC, Strategic Workforce Assessment, 2021

[6] Police Constables, Police staff, Special Constables and police support volunteers in force with a College Learn account

[7] Assessing risk and vulnerability (Jan 2022): 3.27% College Learn accounts; managing digital evidence, 1.87% ; maximising digital information and intelligence (April 2022) 2.35%; and case file digital evidence (April 2022)v 2.04% 

[8] Police Foundation Strategic Review of Policing, March 2022, srpew_final_report.pdf (policingreview.org.uk): “Police CPD is under-resourced. Between 2011/12 and

2017/18, 33 forces reduced their budgeted spending on training in real terms by a greater percentage than

their overall reduction in spending. Despite recent funding boosts, increased demand means that gap is

predicted to remain

[9] Home Office Police Front Line Review: Workshops with police officers and police Staff - Summary report; Betts and Farmer; Office for National Statistics; July 2019

[10] Police Foundation, Strategic Review of Police, March 2022

[11] For example: HMICFRS: Burglary (2022) VAWG (2021); Fraud (2021); Stop and Search (2021); County Lines (2020)

[12] Mental health-related police incidents: Results of a national census exercise in England and Wales; Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 23 July 2021; https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cbm.2206

[13] College of Policing analysis: Estimating demand on the police service (paas-s3-broker-prod-lon-6453d964-1d1a-432a-9260-5e0ba7d2fc51.s3.eu-west-2.amazonaws.com)

[14] In 2016-17, 62% of people rated their local police force as good or excellent compared to 56% in 2019-20 - after which the survey was pared back because of the pandemic: Crime in England and Wales: Annual supplementary tables - Office for National Statistics (ons.gov.uk)

[15] Guidance on outcomes in police misconduct proceedings 2022 (college.police.uk);

[16]  \) Guidance on outcomes in police misconduct proceedings 2022 (college.police.uk);

[17] Operation Hotton Learning report - January 2022.pdf (policeconduct.gov.uk)

[18]Evidence commentary on public trust and confidence - College of Policing, September 2022; See also analysis by the Police Foundation shows that when neighbourhood policing is cut back, the police become less visible on the streets and levels of confidence in local policing falls; Police Foundation, Strategic Review of Policing; figure 3.7

[19] Problem-oriented policing | College of Policing

[20]Knife crime: A problem solving guide (college.police.uk)

[21] Body-worn cameras | College of Policing

[22] Stop and search - GOV.UK Ethnicity facts and figures (ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk); Arrests - GOV.UK Ethnicity facts and figures (ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk); Police use of force statistics, England and Wales: April 2020 to March 2021 - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)

[23] Confidence in the local police - GOV.UK Ethnicity facts and figures (ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk)

[24]  Police response to violence against women and girls – Final inspection report - HMICFRS (justiceinspectorates.gov.uk)

[25] Crime outcomes in England and Wales 2021 to 2022 - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)

[26] Police workforce, England and Wales: 31 March 2022 - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)

[27] Police response to violence against women and girls – Final inspection report - HMICFRS (justiceinspectorates.gov.uk)

[28] Police perpetrated domestic abuse: Report on the Centre for Women’s Justice super complaint - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk); Learnings From Misconduct Review, College of Policing/NPCC, October 2022

[29] Police Workforce Census 2021: New joiner entry routes into the workforce

[30] Police Workforce Census 2021: New joiner entry routes into the workforce

[31] Police officer uplift, quarterly update to June 2022 - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)

[32] Police officer uplift, quarterly update to June 2022 - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)

[33] Police workforce, England and Wales: 31 March 2022 - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)

[34] The evaluation found that since completing Aspire, over two thirds of respondents surveyed as part of its formal evaluation (40 out of 58) had progressed or developed in their career. This included moving to a higher rank (10 respondents), moving to a specialist role (eight respondents), undertaking new acting duties (seven respondents) as well as other career development or change in work responsibilities (28 respondents).