Written evidence submitted by E3G (LRS0048)

About E3G

E3G is an independent, not-for-profit climate change think tank. E3G has been engaging on issues of energy system decarbonisation for over 15 years and has expertise on areas including green and sustainable finance, energy efficiency and zero carbon heat, as well as political economy and governance. Evidence submitted reflects these areas of focus and specialisation.

 

Overview of key conclusions and recommendations

The Government’s ‘levelling up’ agenda is a key opportunity to enable local and regional structures across England to decarbonise their economies in a way that supports an inclusive and just transition, in line with national climate targets and local climate emergency commitments. E3G’s response considers how Government can reform and better equip local structures to support a green and inclusive economic recovery from the coronavirus tragedy.

Evidence base for regional economic prosperity:

      To support the standardisation of evidence bases used to measure and monitor regional economic prosperity, Government can work with local authorities and other stakeholders to outline a best practice framework for setting local targets, establishing economic plans, and measuring and monitoring performance; integrating scientific measures to analyse and evaluate if economic pathways are aligned with UK-wide and local climate targets.  

      Robust governance processes should be mandated for the development of regional economic targets, plans and evaluation – with independent and scientific support provided by Government.

      Regional variation between metrics and approaches for measuring and assessing economic prosperity can be supported in so far as they meet minimum criteria (i.e. alignment with the Paris Agreement, just transition principles, etc.)

      A national observatory can be established to harmonise and support regional initiatives.

Local structures to deliver a green and inclusive economic recovery

      There is growing consensus behind localised approaches to decarbonisation and the just transition, reflecting different regional attributes and strengths. Central government should support and galvanise local decision making; providing good practice frameworks, scientific advice aligned with decarbonisation goals, and robust governance support and procedures to ensure oversight and prevent conflicts of interest.

      A mosaic of local organisations and structures exist to deliver green economic outcomes across the UK, and it is likely there is no ‘one size fits all’ approach. More important than promoting one particular structure may be the governance practices that underpin decision-making at different levels.

      Long-term central government support and policy certainty will be a key factor in determining if local structures can successfully deliver green prosperity to the UK’s regions. Areas which have long been deprived and suffered the worst consequences from years of austerity may need extra support going forward to rebuild capacity.

Sustainable local economies and targeted regional investment

      There is a strong case supporting energy efficiency measures and zero carbon heating as engines for a green recovery, stimulating local economies and embedding upskilling at a regional level.

      Central government can support Local Authorities deliver on these through a pipeline of existing policies and delivery mechanisms, such as the Home Upgrades Grant, as well as by supporting new instruments – such as a Heat Sector Deal to boost heat-pumps and heat networks.

Investment and capital provisions for local green and inclusive economic recoveries

      In order to ensure the UK Shared Prosperity Fund supports a green and inclusive recovery, it is essential that capital allocation is aligned with the Paris Agreement, excluding carbon intensive sectors and projects, and supporting the industries and infrastructure of the future.

      A new, zero-carbon UK National Investment Bank should be set up to support regional development, helping leverage additional private investment to support green jobs and industries across the country.

 

Evidence base

Currently, limited evidence exists to measure the performance of regional and local government in the delivery of economic prosperity. For instance, the National Audit Office notes that the Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government has not evaluated the impact of the local growth funding it has provided to Local Economic Partnerships (LEPs) through Growth Deals.[1] The Department opted not to set quantifiable objectives for Growth Deals, for example, the number of jobs created. The Department does not intend to evaluate the impact of Growth Deals but instead it has plans for an “informal evaluation” before the (delayed) 2019 Spending Review, acknowledging this will not amount to a clear understanding of the effectiveness of Growth Deals.

With the UK committed to net-zero emissions by 2050 – and with a large and growing number of Local Authorities, councils, cities and towns having declared a climate emergency and committed to decarbonise by 2035 and sooner – it is clear that performance measures need to be linked to decoupling economic prosperity and wellbeing from greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the evidence base and measurements used by different regions and local governments to assess performance varies across the country, including in relation to supporting a well-managed and just transition to a decarbonised economy.

39% of the UK’s 434 local authorities are actively delivering clean energy transitions. The map below shows how these local authorities are distributed across the country[2]. ‘Energy leaders’ (13%) are those who have been appraised by Edinburgh University’s Heat and the City research group to be investing in three or more local energy projects and have a sustainable energy plan underpinning the investments. Local Authorities considered to be ‘running hard’ (26%) are investing in one to two projects, also backed by a local plan. Leaders are distributed across the country, including in regions which are of key focus for the Government’s levelling up agenda. These champions could be engaged with to support the crafting and delivery of regional decarbonisation plans.

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In certain places, targets and roadmaps are underpinned by independent scientific and academic studies – for instance, the Manchester Climate Change Agency worked with the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research at Manchester University to establish science-based climate targets for the city.[3] However, in other cases, local plans appear shaped by businesses, sometimes without assurance of independent scientific rigour or governance protocols to protect against a potential conflict of interests – particularly concerning where these companies currently operate high carbon business models with links to fossil fuel investments and infrastructure. For instance, Humberside LEP is working closely with Drax, Phillips 66, Equinor, National Grid and Centrica to develop a Humber Cluster Plan for the region to achieve net zero carbon emissions by 2040.[4]  While it is important to engage industry in the process of developing a plan, the evidence base it is formed upon should be independent of corporate interests and reflect scientific assessment.

Across the UK, regions might choose different metrics for assessing the delivery of economic outcomes. For instance, Liverpool City Region Combined Authority recently joined the Wellbeing Economy Alliance,[5] and the Welsh Government has announced its membership of the Wellbeing Economy Governments partnership[6] – taking on board a wellbeing-centred understanding of economic prosperity, moving beyond traditional GDP measures. Around the world, cities are exploring other alternative economic models – with Amsterdam adopting a ‘donut’ model, wherein economic activity takes place within the ecological limits required for planetary sustainability.[7] A diversity of approaches could be supported across the country, with minimum standards encouraged by government (i.e. alignment with national climate targets, governance criteria etc).

Recommendations:

      To support the standardisation of evidence bases used to measure and monitor regional economic prosperity, Government can work with local authorities and other stakeholders to outline a best practice framework for setting local targets, establishing economic plans, and measuring and monitoring performance; integrating scientific measures to analyse and evaluate if economic pathways are aligned with UK-wide and local climate targets.  

      Robust governance processes should be mandated for the development of regional economic targets, plans and evaluation – with independent and scientific support provided by Government.

      Regional variation between metrics and approaches for measuring and assessing economic prosperity can be supported in so far as they meet minimum criteria (i.e. alignment with the Paris Agreement, just transition principles, etc.)

      A national observatory can be established to harmonise and support regional initiatives.

 

Local structures

Different structures exist across the country for delivering regional prosperity, including with regards to the green economy. There is growing consensus that different approaches to decarbonisation will be needed to reflect regional variation and assets – including through Local Area Energy Planning,[8] Heat and Energy Efficiency Zoning,[9] and Local Industrial Strategies that support a just transition.[10] Since no ‘one size fits all’ solution is appropriate for decarbonisation, it is therefore also likely that the structures required for delivery will also vary. Nonetheless, there is still a role for central government supporting regional implementation through the provision of good practice frameworks, with minimum requirements regarding robust governance, independent scientific rigour and social indicators.

Case study: Successful local structures and collaborations

Bristol is recognised as a leader on climate action, having pledged to become carbon neutral by 2030, taking into account both production and consumption emissions,[11] with a One City Plan which seeks to foster an inclusive transition to a low carbon economy.[12] The plan is iterative and evolving, and was developed using outputs from a wide range of workshops with partners and communities, as well as input from the thematic boards and groups in the city (e.g. the Health and Wellbeing Board). Led by Bristol City Council and Bristol Energy, the city’s energy company, City Leap will establish a joint venture with another organisation or group of organisations to support the delivery of the UK’s first carbon neutral city by 2030.[13] Systematic central government support behind such ventures can empower local authorities to deliver green prosperity and meet climate targets.

The Preston Model is another widely recognised good practice case study; fostering community wealth building[14] and supporting the levelling up agenda. Implementation is shared across a range of Preston-based anchor institutions, including Preston City Council, Lancashire County Council, University of Central Lancashire, Preston's College, Cardinal Newman College, Community Gateway Housing Association and Lancashire Constabulary. Community wealth building offers an opportunity to ensure that the benefits of local prosperity are invested in local areas, used to support investment in productive economic activities, allowing communities and their local institutions to work together on an agenda of shared benefit. A green version of this model could be imagined with a focus on sustainable local supply chains. Examples of this could include partnering with local colleges to invest in green training and jobs or sharing green procurement policies with anchor institutions.[15]

Case study: Structures to deploy energy efficiency green recovery measures

Many local and combined authorities are working to tackle energy efficiency, heat decarbonisation and fuel poverty, supported by a plethora of local structures and delivery bodies. A window into this is the range of local partnerships, combined authorities, county councils and energy agencies that have developed joint ‘statements of intent’ outlining their proposals to assist energy companies in targeting their ECO funding under the scheme’s flexible household eligibility mechanism, which – capped at 25% of ECO delivery – is over-subscribed.[16]

Supporting this and other local energy investment plans, BEIS has set up a network of Regional Energy Hubs, offering funding to LEPs to develop energy and low carbon strategies[17]. These plans provide a roadmap that bolsters local jobs and supply chains – including in regions facing high occurrences of unemployment and fuel poverty. Leading social housing providers – often themselves local authorities – and their supply chains are another key delivery route. Social housing renovation and construction works are usually carried out to the highest standards of quality and energy performance and follow long-term stock maintenance and improvement plans. Housing associations alone have invested £10.9bn in their stock in England since 2010[18]. These investments can support the scale-up of supply chains that deliver high quality work with the potential and track record to expand into private housing. L&Q is an example of a housing association that has branched out to become one of the largest affordable housing developers in the UK, as well as London’s largest landlord[19].

In crafting regionally appropriate responses, there is a significant role for the dozens of independent energy agencies in the third sector around the UK who are active beyond their neighbourhoods – well-known examples include the Centre for Sustainable Energy and Changeworks – who have immense locally and nationally relevant expertise and can act as delivery partners for local authorities and other bodies delivering energy efficiency stimulus on the ground.[20] With growing awareness of the importance of investing in social capital to underpin a resilient recovery[21], involvement of the UK’s grassroots’ expertise to support the energy efficiency of homes can make a significant contribution.

The success or failure of locally led initiatives can depend on the assurance of a long-term government roadmap and financing plan. The results from the Green Deal Communities programme, which supported local authorities in promoting Green Deal take-up, were disappointing and enhanced local take-up has not persisted.[22] The extremely short time-scales for local authorities to apply for, and spend, the funding available played a significant role in this failure. A significant, if anecdotal, downside to this experience is a perception amongst some stakeholders that local authorities are not effective at delivery. Many clearly are effective and have repeatedly been able to secure and deploy energy efficiency funding effectively.[23] Long-term support and certainty will be a key factor in determining which delivery structures can successfully deliver green prosperity.

Recommendations:

      There is growing consensus that localised approaches to decarbonisation and the just transition will be needed. Central government should support and galvanise local decision making, providing frameworks for good practice, scientific advice to align with decarbonisation goals, and robust governance procedures to ensure oversight and prevent conflicts of interest (see previous section).

      A mosaic of organisations and structures exist to deliver a green economy across the UK, and it is likely there is no ‘one size fits all’ approach. More important than focus on particular structures may be the guiding principles and governance practices that underpin them.

      Long-term central government support and policy certainty will be a key factor in determining which delivery structures can successfully deliver green prosperity to the UK’s regions. Areas which have long been deprived and suffered the worst consequences from years of austerity may need extra support going forward to rebuild capacity.

 

Sustainable local economies and targeted regional investment

A green economic recovery can stimulate local economies and embed upskilling at a regional level. A comprehensive green recovery should span different economic and industrial sectors, as well as nature-based solutions and programmes focussed on boosting resilience to anticipated climate shocks such as flooding and heatwaves. With reference to E3G’s expertise in energy efficiency and heat decarbonisation, our response below provides an evidence case to support the role these areas can play in boosting green jobs and enhancing well-being, supporting the levelling up agenda.

Boosting green jobs and levelling up with energy efficiency

Renovating homes is labour-intensive and mostly done by SMEs. Energy efficiency investment can level up opportunity – supporting over 150,000 skilled and semi-skilled jobs to 2030 – in every part of the country, doing more in the regions that need it most. Buildings construction, repair, maintenance and improvement supply chains needed to deliver energy efficiency works mostly comprise small businesses[24] anchored to local areas[25], meaning most jobs needed to deliver improvements in a given area would be located there.

The North East, West Midlands, North West, Yorkshire and the Humber regions of England, and Wales, have the highest per capita energy efficiency investment need and unemployment. Energy efficiency investment for homes levels up infrastructure and resilience, delivering benefits for all. It is needed most in areas outside of London, the Home Counties and the South East (see map below).

Figure : Investment per capita needed to reach EPC C by 2030, by County[26]

Reducing fuel poverty and boosting wellbeing.

There are significant disparities in the incidence of fuel poverty across the country. Energy efficiency investment can level up energy affordability by supporting vulnerable households in or at risk of fuel poverty – and supporting the Government’s goal to end fuel poverty by 2030.

The latest available fuel poverty statistics, for 2018, estimate its incidence in England at 10.3%, or 2.4 million households[27]. Improvement in the average energy efficiency of homes in England has been marginal since 2015. Furthermore, energy efficiency for fuel poor households lags behind the average for all households, as has their relative rate of improvement since 2016 – attributed to a decrease in the number of improvements delivered through government programmes in 2017 and 2018[28]. There is considerable variation in fuel poverty across the country, illustrated below.

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Figure: Incidence of fuel poverty in England in 2018, mapped by Westminster Parliamentary Constituency

The map shows that the incidence of fuel poverty is generally highest in rural areas outside of the South and South East – such as in Cornwall, Cumbria, the East England coast, Lancashire, Lincolnshire, the West Midlands – and in deprived inner-city neighbourhoods including Birmingham, Bradford, Liverpool, Leicester, London, Manchester, Newcastle and Nottingham.

Inefficient homes are hard and expensive to keep adequately warm and exacerbate the risks of respiratory and circulatory problems and poor mental health. Comprising one of the least efficient housing stocks in Europe[29], they are a significant contributory factor to excess winter mortality in the UK, which is the sixth highest among all European nations[30]. The clear disparities in the efficiency of homes and fuel poverty within the UK cause health inequalities. Improving energy efficiency is an opportunity to level up resilience to health and wellbeing risks and permanently reduce pressure on the NHS – risks which will be heightened if lock-down restrictions extend into colder months.

Energy efficiency, combined with low carbon heat, is also an opportunity to level up rural-urban infrastructure disparities across the UK in the near term. The combination of lower energy efficiency and expensive to run heating systems accounts for the higher prevalence of low EPC-rated properties in rural areas. The Campaign to Protect Rural England,[31] the Prince’s Countryside Fund[32] and others in the devolved nations[33] have identified this disparity as holding rural areas back.

The combination of insulation, cheap to run low carbon heating systems and better heating controls presents an opportunity to address urban-rural infrastructure disparity. This would position rural areas as a top priority for supporting the decarbonisation of heat and associated supply chains through a near-term stimulus package, to develop the supply chains and lay the foundations for decarbonising heat across the UK.

Policy levers and investment pathways

The Government has announced a £2bn Green Homes Grant scheme for England, providing grants up to £5,000 for homeowners. Households on low income can receive vouchers covering 100% of the cost up to £10,000. Grants can be used to purchase insulation, heat pumps, solar thermal, glazing, energy efficient doors and heating controls. £500m of the £2 billion will be administered by local authorities across England through the Green Home Grant Local Authority Delivery (LAD) scheme. Local authorities can bid for funding to support low-income households in their area.

The LAD scheme is welcome, but will likely benefit Authorities with existing competencies and an existing pipeline projects. Whether it supports the levelling up agenda or not will depend on which Authorities are successful in their bids. A longer-term and more comprehensive approach is needed which reaches all Local Authorities, including those in areas most in need. The Energy Efficiency Infrastructure Group (EEIG) recommends at least £410m of funding is provided over next two years, provided from the £2.5bn Home Upgrade Grants scheme, enabling Local Authorities to support low income households.[34] This will help prepare for the for scale-up of Home Upgrade Grants scheme – expected to reach over £1.1 bn in 2024/25. The EEIG also recommends extending the scheme at the current proposed level to 2030, in order to meet fuel poverty targets.

The green recovery and decarbonising heat

The challenge of decarbonising heat is UK wide: heating buildings accounts for 21% of the UK’s greenhouse gas emissions, second only to transport. Currently, only 8% of the UK’s heat is provided from renewable energy. A decision on substantive new action to decarbonise heat to 2030 is needed this year for the UK to get on track for net zero, building on the decision to include heat pumps within the Green Home Grant scheme. This could provide a provide an opportunity to support a long-term green recovery across the UK, boosting green jobs, manufacturing and supply chains.

The Heat Pump Association estimates that there are over 100,000 registered gas engineers in the UK who are capable of retraining to deliver low carbon heating, given sufficient demand.[35] In the past half-century, there has been a shift to central heating systems and industry must be prepared for another move in heating technology with extensive training on low carbon solutions.

Supply chain development could be boosted by a heat pumps sector deal – analogous to that for the offshore wind industry – for example anchored to a heat pump manufacturing plant located in Livingston, Scotland, that is already being explored. Kensa, a British firm, manufactures ground source heat pump systems in Cornwall. A sector deal can be designed to support UK criteria for economic stimulus in response the economic crisis induced by the coronavirus pandemic that builds on the insights of other sector deals, BEIS’s current heat electrification demonstration project, and lessons from Scotland and the Netherlands on the development of local government leadership to plan for heat decarbonisation. In both the Scottish and Dutch cases, local heat planning is across the residential, commercial and public sectors, integrated with energy efficiency and supported by national government investment and resources.

Recommendations

      There is a strong case supporting energy efficiency measures and zero carbon heating as engines for a green economic recovery, stimulating local economies and embedding upskilling at a regional level.

      Central government can support Local Authorities deliver on these through existing policies, such as the Home Upgrades Grant, as well as supporting new instruments – such as a Heat Sector Deal to boost heat-pumps and heat networks.

 

Regional funding

As a member of the European Union, the UK received structural funding worth about £2.1bn per year. Now that the UK has left the EU, this funding will cease. In order to replace it, the Government has pledged to set up a Shared Prosperity Fund to “reduce inequalities between communities”.

In order to ensure the Fund supports a green recovery, it is essential  that capital allocation is aligned with decarbonisation pathways compliant with the Paris Agreement, embedding Clean Growth principles to guide targeting.[36] It should exclude funding for high carbon projects (such as supporting fossil fuel extraction, infrastructure, etc) and focus on financing the sectors of the future which will help support green prosperity across the UK. These same principles should apply to the British Business Bank and other public banks and public finance mechanisms if they are to support a green recovery.

Public finance should provide support to companies and projects that support the government objective to achieve a net zero economy, as well as the levelling up agenda. HMT and BEIS could create a framework to identify measures that would support the deep decarbonisation and increase resilience to external shocks in the UK economy, plus ensuring that all regions in the UK benefit and embed just transition principles. The framework should be simple, transparent and focus on three main groups of criteria: economic impact, environmental and social / regional[37]. To be eligible for support a company or programme would need to demonstrate that it meets all three group of criteria.

The economic criteria would include ensuring that the requested support has a positive net present value, that it creates jobs and that it contributes to a more resilient economy. The social criteria should include assessing whether the measure will contribute to the levelling up agenda, support disadvantaged groups and contribute to a more equitable society. It should also include measures related to good governance.

The environmental criteria could be divided across key areas.

  1.           Projects should support low carbon and/or climate resilient investments to drive the net zero transition and contribute to achieving the UK's climate goals.
  2.           Projects should reduce pollution and waste, and contribute to restoring and protecting the natural environment
  3.           Projects should contribute to the development and uptake of technologies and practices which will facilitate the net-zero transition

 

All of these criteria should be considered against a timeframe for achieving these results, to determine whether they will build on existing policy frameworks, markets and sources of finance, or whether they will require new policies and/or sources of finance to be designed to deliver their benefits.

Robust governance measures and oversight should be in place to monitor and evaluate corporate commitments and progress towards targets, with independent scientific scrutiny and third-party auditing such as Office for Budget Responsibility or the National Audit Office to monitor environmental and social impact.

National Infrastructure Bank

The UK has a well-established set of institutions to determine infrastructure investment needs and to ensure that infrastructure projects are delivered to budget but which are being undermined by the current uncertain environment. However, there is a need for an institution which can bridge the gap between policy and investment, and between top-down finance and bottom-up projects.

A new mission-driven, zero carbon National Investment Bank could support the UK government in providing a short to medium-term stimulus to the economy which meets wider goals such as increasing income by creating jobs, boosting long-term productivity, levelling up the economy and increasing resilience. By establishing a Green Infrastructure Bank the government will ensure that the public spending decisions we take today will breaks down the barriers to investing in the infrastructure of the future.

The core missions underpinning the announced new green Investment Bank could include:

    1. Aligns with the Paris Agreement and Climate Change Act, with the investment strategy subject to independent scientific review to ensure alignment with 1.5 °C pathways;
    2. Embeds just transition principles, creating secure green jobs across the country, and providing support and opportunities for those currently employed in high carbon sectors;
    3. Supports UK local authorities, cities and devolved nations to invest in a green recovery and deliver regionally decided decarbonisation plans;
    4. Subject to strong governance and oversight procedures which protect its core net-zero mission.

 

Components could include:

      A green banking facility offering bespoke financial instruments to address the specific requirements of low-carbon resilient infrastructure. For example: de-risking, aggregation of projects, issuing green bonds to invest in climate resilience.

      An observatory tracking financial flows in real-time to quantify investment at the national and regional level, and identify shortfalls in investment and barriers to levelling up.

      A project development facility/ team to engage with local authorities as well as with the private sector to support the development of a pipeline of bankable projects that have both a mitigation and adaptation focus. This team could also support the development of demonstration projects, which will be particularly important in rapidly evolving technology environment as disruptive technologies are reshaping traditional business models into more integrated ones. The team’s role may also involve dialogue with regulators and other market participants to help smooth the way for the adoption of new technology.

      Development of future markets by supporting technological innovation.

      Provision of strategic advice to the government (complementing the Committee on Climate Change and the National Infrastructure Commission), on what the current barriers to green investment are, what policy tools to address them.

      An international investment arm which can work directly with countries to leverage in major funding to clean sectors and support nature-based solutions.

 

Recommendations:

      In order to ensure the UK Shared Prosperity Fund supports a green and inclusive recovery, it is essential that capital allocation is aligned with the Paris Agreement, excluding support carbon intensive sectors and projects, and instead supporting the industries and infrastructure of the future.

      A new, zero carbon UK Investment Bank should be set up to support regional development, helping leverage additional private investment to support green jobs and industries across the country.

September 2020


[1] https://www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Local-Enterprise-Partnerships-an-update-on-progress.pdf

[2]Tingey, M. & Webb, J. (2020) Governance institutions and prospects for local energy innovation: laggards and leaders among UK local authorities. Energy Policy. [Online] 138, 111211. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2019.111211.

[3] https://secure.manchester.gov.uk/info/500002/council_policies_and_strategies/3833/climate_change/3

[4] https://renews.biz/62439/sse-equinor-draw-up-net-zero-plan-for-the-humber/

[5] https://theguideliverpool.com/liverpool-city-region-combined-authority-joins-the-wellbeing-economy-alliance/

[6] https://wellbeingeconomy.org/wales-joins-wellbeing-economy-governments-partnership

[7] https://smartcityhub.com/governance-economy/doughnut-cities/

[8] https://es.catapult.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Local-Area-Energy-Planning-Guidance-for-local-authorities-and-energy-providers.pdf

[9] https://www.theade.co.uk/resources/publications/heat-and-energy-efficiency-zoning-a-framework-for-net-zero-for-new-and-exis#:~:text=The%20Zoning%20Framework%20is%20based,and%20technologies%20to%20do%20so.

[10] https://neweconomics.org/uploads/files/NEF_trust-in-transition.pdf

[11] https://www.bristol.gov.uk/documents/20182/33379/Mayor%27s+Climate+Emergency+Action+Plan+2019+FINAL

[12] https://www.bristolonecity.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/One-City-Plan_2020.pdf

[13] https://www.energyservicebristol.co.uk/cityleap/

[14] https://cles.org.uk/tag/the-preston-model/

[15] https://cles.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/CWCLES-split.pdf

[16] https://www.theeeig.co.uk/media/1091/eeig_report_rebuilding_for_resilience_pages_01.pdf

[17] (Community Energy Hub, 2019)

[18] (NHF, 2019)

[19] (L&Q, 2018)

[20] (Age UK, 2012)

[21] (Onward, 2020)

[22] https://www.e3g.org/wp-content/uploads/E3G_2018_07_Silver_buckshots.pdf

[23] https://www.e3g.org/wp-content/uploads/E3G_2018_07_Silver_buckshots.pdf

[24] (BEIS, 2020b)

[25] (Owen, Morgan & Killip, 2017)

[26] No county-level data derivable for Northern Ireland. For more granular (Constituency level) data, please contact the author.

[27] (BEIS, 2020c)

[28] (BEIS, 2020a)

[29] (Guertler, Carrington & Jansz, 2015)

[30] (E3G & NEA, 2018)

[31] (CPRE, 2019)

[32] (Skerratt, 2018)

[33] (Bryson Energy, 2018; EAS, 2020; Powell, Keech & Reed, 2018)

[34] https://www.theeeig.co.uk/media/1091/eeig_report_rebuilding_for_resilience_pages_01.pdf

[35] https://www.heatpumps.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Building-the-Installer-Base-for-Net-Zero-Heating_02.06.pdf

[36] https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/748296/delivering-clean-growth.pdf

[37] SPI (2020). The Resilient Recovery Framework